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Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air

Joseph Priestley

Joseph Priestley, FRS (13 March 1733 (O.S.) – 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works. In “Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air,” he reviews experiments with gases. A common theme in this work is measuring the volumes of gases held in glass tubes, and their increase or decrease when exposed to other substances. He also tests the effects of gases on mice, plants and insects. Priestley demonstrated that fixed air (now known as CO2) can be produced from several reactions including alcoholic fermentation, combustion and a mixture of oil of vitriol and chalk (sulfuric acid and calcium oxide). He also showed that it is soluble in water, and that its toxic effects can be reduced when agitated in water. In other experiments, he showed that combinations of gases can mix to form a smaller volume than the sum of both separate gases, as when he combined common air (atmospheric air) with nitrous air (nitric oxide, NO). For some experiments, Priestley tests whether the properties of gases change when stored. He finds that inflammable air (hydrogen, H2 or a mixture of hydrocarbons) becomes less flammable but retains its toxic properties. Also interested in electricity, Priestley tests the effects of gases on sparks. While he finds that gases are generally good insulators, he also finds that some gases change the colors of electric sparks. He also discovers that some mixtures of air explode in their entirety, while others must be combined with common air in order to burn. Priestley uses several terms common to the study of natural philosophy, or chemical experiments as known today. Some of the terms are parts of obsolete theories or are old names for chemicals now given standard names. To better understand Priestley's observations, the following terms are defined according to their present names. here

Joseph Priestley, FRS (13 March 1733 (O.S.) – 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works. In “Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air,” he reviews experiments with gases. A common theme in this work is measuring the volumes of gases held in glass tubes, and their increase or decrease when exposed to other substances. He also tests the effects of gases on mice, plants and insects. Priestley demonstrated that fixed air (now known as CO2) can be produced from several reactions including alcoholic fermentation, combustion and a mixture of oil of vitriol and chalk (sulfuric acid and calcium oxide). He also showed that it is soluble in water, and that its toxic effects can be reduced when agitated in water. In other experiments, he showed that combinations of gases can mix to form a smaller volume than the sum of both separate gases, as when he combined common air (atmospheric air) with nitrous air (nitric oxide, NO). For some experiments, Priestley tests whether the properties of gases change when stored. He finds that inflammable air (hydrogen, H2 or a mixture of hydrocarbons) becomes less flammable but retains its toxic properties. Also interested in electricity, Priestley tests the effects of gases on sparks. While he finds that gases are generally good insulators, he also finds that some gases change the colors of electric sparks. He also discovers that some mixtures of air explode in their entirety, while others must be combined with common air in order to burn. Priestley uses several terms common to the study of natural philosophy, or chemical experiments as known today. Some of the terms are parts of obsolete theories or are old names for chemicals now given standard names. To better understand Priestley's observations, the following terms are defined according to their present names. here
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Joseph Priestley, FRS (13 March 1733 (O.S.) – 6 February 1804) was an 18th-century English theologian, Dissenting clergyman, natural philosopher, chemist, educator, and political theorist who published over 150 works. In “Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air,” he reviews experiments with gases. A common theme in this work is measuring the volumes of gases held in glass tubes, and their increase or decrease when exposed to other substances. He also tests the effects of gases on mice, plants and insects. Priestley demonstrated that fixed air (now known as CO2) can be produced from several reactions including alcoholic fermentation, combustion and a mixture of oil of vitriol and chalk (sulfuric acid and calcium oxide). He also showed that it is soluble in water, and that its toxic effects can be reduced when agitated in water. In other experiments, he showed that combinations of gases can mix to form a smaller volume than the sum of both separate gases, as when he combined common air (atmospheric air) with nitrous air (nitric oxide, NO). For some experiments, Priestley tests whether the properties of gases change when stored. He finds that inflammable air (hydrogen, H2 or a mixture of hydrocarbons) becomes less flammable but retains its toxic properties. Also interested in electricity, Priestley tests the effects of gases on sparks. While he finds that gases are generally good insulators, he also finds that some gases change the colors of electric sparks. He also discovers that some mixtures of air explode in their entirety, while others must be combined with common air in order to burn. Priestley uses several terms common to the study of natural philosophy, or chemical experiments as known today. Some of the terms are parts of obsolete theories or are old names for chemicals now given standard names. To better understand Priestley's observations, the following terms are defined according to their present names. here

Language:

English

Narrators:

LibriVox Community

Length:

7h 29m


Chapters

Chapter 1
Chapter 1

21:39


Chapter 2
Chapter 2

30:06


Chapter 3
Chapter 3

27:38


Chapter 4
Chapter 4

16:54


Chapter 5
Chapter 5

21:11


Chapter 6
Chapter 6

27:19


Chapter 7
Chapter 7

24:09


Chapter 8
Chapter 8

04:37


Chapter 9
Chapter 9

30:11


Chapter 10
Chapter 10

06:03


Chapter 11
Chapter 11

14:36


Chapter 12
Chapter 12

16:09


Chapter 13
Chapter 13

11:16


Chapter 14
Chapter 14

19:01


Chapter 15
Chapter 15

36:14


Chapter 16
Chapter 16

00:01


Chapter 17
Chapter 17

17:05


Chapter 18
Chapter 18

08:27


Chapter 19
Chapter 19

12:42


Chapter 20
Chapter 20

42:09


Chapter 21
Chapter 21

17:16


Chapter 22
Chapter 22

24:56


Chapter 23
Chapter 23

19:53