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Happycast: The Science of Happiness

Science Podcasts

I share science based ideas that will make you happier, more productive, and more successful.




I share science based ideas that will make you happier, more productive, and more successful.




Balance, creating space in your life

What do I need to actually balance? Why is balance so important? How can we achieve more balance? Listen and find out. A Happier Year is now available on AHappierYear.com! Use the code “happycastlistener” at checkout for 10% off. [01:00] A metaphor for balance [02:23] Social relationships [02:53] Mirror neurons [03:53] Bowling et al., “What makes your life good?” [06:13] Creating space for social relationships [07:31] Meaning and passion [13:20] Overwork [15:41] Disconnecting from work [17:43] Passions [18:50] Creating space References: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.06.006https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2007.01.001https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-018-0008-xhttps://doi.org/10.1002/job.1924


A Happier Year: Healthy selfishness, looking forward, and acceptance

A Happier Year is now available — an illustrated calendar with 366 science-based actions. Use the code "happycastlistener" for 10% off at checkout on http://ahappieryear.com Today we are going to talk about three different papers assessing: healthy selfishness, optimism, and acceptance. These three papers provide the basis for three actions in A Happier Year. Let's dive into these papers and get a sneak peek of what's in A Happier Year. [00:00] Intro [02:36] Healthy Selfishness [06:25] Looking forward to tomorrow [09:25] Is anything bugging you right now? References: Kaufman, S. B., & Jauk, E. (2020). Healthy Selfishness and Pathological Altruism: Measuring Two Paradoxical Forms of Selfishness. Frontiers in psychology, 11, 1006. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01006Littman-Ovadia, H., & Nir, D. (2013;2014;). Looking forward to tomorrow: The buffering effect of a daily optimism intervention. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 9(2), 122-136. doi:10.1080/17439760.2013.853202Ford, B. Q., Lam, P., John, O. P., & Mauss, I. B. (2018). The psychological health benefits of accepting negative emotions and thoughts: Laboratory, diary, and longitudinal evidence. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 115(6), 1075–1092. https://doi.org/10.1037/pspp0000157


Active leisure, you can do more!

A Happier Year is now available — an illustrated calendar with 366 science-based actions. Use the code "happycastlistener" for 10% off at checkout on http://ahappieryear.com Today we are learning about active leisure! Why do we feel so “blah” after watching Netflix and what can we do instead? What psychological needs are we missing out on? [00:30] Something exciting! [02:30] Active leisure vs passive leisure [04:35] The benefits of active leisure [06:25] How does active leisure benefit us (vs passive leisure) [11:10] An example of active leisure: Rock climbing [13:05] Finding active leisure that suits you [14:06] What are you actually tired of? [15:54] A Happier Year is on Kickstarter! bit.ly/ahappieryear References: Hu, X., Barber, L. K., & Santuzzi, A. M. (2020). Does active leisure improve worker well-being? an experimental daily diary approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, doi:10.1007/s10902-020-00305-wKuykendall, L., Lei, X., Zhu, Z., & Hu, X. (2020). Leisure choices and employee Well‐Being: Comparing need fulfillment and Well‐Being during TV and other leisure activities. Applied Psychology : Health and Well-being, 12(2), 532-558. doi:10.1111/aphw.12196


Joy, a deeper look

A Happier Year is now available — an illustrated calendar with 366 science-based actions. Use the code "happycastlistener" for 10% off at checkout on http://ahappieryear.com What is joy? We dig into how we define joy and talk about a strategy to add more joy to our lives. [00:00] Intro [1:10] Exciting Happycast news! [02:28] What is joy? [05:25] Joy as an emotion [08:32] Joy as more than an emotion [11:25] Appreciative joy [13:55] Joy journal [15:08] Tears of joy [20:05] Outro Join the Facebook group to get a sneak peak of A Happier Year and give me some feedback! https://www.facebook.com/groups/957308811397774 References Casioppo, D. (2019). The cultivation of joy: practices from the Buddhist tradition, positive psychology, and yogic philosophy. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1–7. doi:10.1080/17439760.2019.1685577 Emmons, R. A. (2020). Joy: An introduction to this special issue. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 15(1), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2019.1685580Zeng, X., Sun, Y., Deng, Y., & Oei, T. P. S. (2019). Appreciative joy rooted in Chinese culture: Its relationship with strengths in values in action. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1–10.Zeng, X., Wang, R., Oei, T. P. S., & Leung, F. Y. K. (2018). Heart of Joy: a Randomized Controlled Trail Evaluating the Effect of an Appreciative Joy Meditation Training on Subjective Well-Being and Attitudes. Mindfulness. doi:10.1007/s12671-018-0992-2 Matthew Kuan Johnson (2020) Joy: a review of the literature and suggestions for future directions, The Journal of Positive Psychology, 15:1, 5-24, DOI:10.1080/17439760.2019.1685581 Oriana R. Aragón & John A. Bargh (2017): “So Happy I Could Shout!” and “So Happy I Could Cry!” Dimorphous expressions represent and communicate motivational aspects of positive emotions, Cognition and Emotion, DOI: 10.1080/02699931.2017.1301388Matthew Kuan Johnson (2020) Joy: a review of the literature and suggestions for future directions, The Journal of Positive Psychology, 15:1, 5-24, DOI:10.1080/17439760.2019.1685581Aragón, O. R., & Clark, M. S. (2018). "tears of joy" & "smiles of joy" prompt distinct patterns of interpersonal emotion regulation. Cognition and Emotion, 32(5), 913-940. doi:10.1080/02699931.2017.1360253’


Corona-cast, How to feel a little better during a worldwide pandemic

A Happier Year is now available — an illustrated calendar with 366 science-based actions. Use the code "happycastlistener" for 10% off at checkout on http://ahappieryear.com We are all feeling a little anxious and overwhelmed right now. Here are some science backed tips on how to feel a little better during these weird and scary times. [00:18] Intro [02:35] Stay social with video chats! [08:40] Get moving [13:24] Focus on what you can control [15:30] Disconnect from the news a little [17:44] Outro References Tsai, H., Cheng, C., Shieh, W., & Chang, Y. (2020). Effects of a smartphone-based videoconferencing program for older nursing home residents on depression, loneliness, and quality of life: A quasi-experimental study. BMC Geriatrics, 20(1), 27-11. doi:10.1186/s12877-020-1426-2Lathia, N., Sandstrom, G. M., Mascolo, C., & Rentfrow, P. J. (2017). Happier people live more active lives: Using smartphones to link happiness and physical activity. PloS One, 12(1), e0160589. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0160589


Control, put yourself in the driver’s seat

A Happier Year is now available — an illustrated calendar with 366 science-based actions. Use the code "happycastlistener" for 10% off at checkout on http://ahappieryear.com How can we gain more control of our feelings and of our lives? [00:00] Intro [01:20] What is control? [03:43] You can’t control everything [04:45] Study: Control helps older adults through stressful times [08:25] How to feel more in control References: Thompson, S.C. (2017) The Role of Personal Control in Adaptive Functioning In C.R. Snyder, Shane J. Lopez, Lisa M. Edwards, and Susana C. Marques (Ed.),The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology, 3rd Edition.doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199396511.013.22 Dulin, P. L., Hanson, B. L., & King, D. K. (2013). Perceived control as a longitudinal moderator of late-life stressors on depressive symptoms,Aging and Mental Health, 17(6), 718-723.https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2013.784956


Psychological safety, a conversation with Dr. Timothy R. Clark

In a nutshell, psychological safety is about feeling safe to learn, contribute, and challenge the status quo without fear of being embarrassed or punished. Listen as Dr. Clark shares his wealth of knowledge on this topic. A Happier Year is now available — an illustrated calendar with 366 science-based actions. Use the code "happycastlistener" for 10% off at checkout on http://ahappieryear.com [01:50] Dr. Clark’s background [03:30] The background of psychological safety [04:30] The basic definition of psychological safety [06:07] Why is psychological safety important? [06:40] Personal experiment with psychological safety [08:07] What are some common causes of fear? The four stages of psychological safety [11:55] The first sign of psychological safety: Inclusion safety [15:05] How to make people feel included? [17:05] Stage two: Learner safety [17:45] Stage three: Contributor safety [18:35] Stage four: Challenger safety [20:32] What’s something a leader might be doing that is undermining psychological safety [22:12] What can an employee do? How to disagree. [24:50] How to compete in a healthy way [28:00] Intended audience [29:20] How this relates to students [32:00] A better way to view failure [39:54] Parting thoughts Get in touch with Dr. Clark tclark@leaderfactor.com https://www.leaderfactor.com Get Dr. Clark’s book https://www.amazon.com/Stages-Psychological-Safety-Inclusion-Innovation/dp/1523087684


The secret to making friends

What is the secret to making and having friends? Listen in, it might surprise you! A Happier Year is now available — an illustrated calendar with 366 science-based actions. Use the code "happycastlistener" for 10% off at checkout on http://ahappieryear.com [00:00] Intro [01:40] Spatial ecology [04:52] How many hours does it take to make a friend? Study 1 (adults that moved cities) [08:50] How many hours does it take to make a friend? Study 2 (college students) [10:50] Striving Behaviours, quality conversation [13:13] What is the secret to being liked? [15:20] Outtro References: Ebbesen, E.B., Kjos, G.L., & Konečni, J. (1976). Spatial ecology: Its effects on the choice of friends and enemies. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 12(6), 505-518. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-1031(76)90030-5 Hall, J. A. (2019). How many hours does it take to make a friend ? Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 36(4), 1278–1296. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407518761225 Aronson, E., & Worchel, P. (1966). Similarity versus liking as determinants of interpersonal attractiveness. Psychonomic Science, 5(4), 157-158. http://dx.doi.org/10.3758/BF03328329


Dear Love, a conversation about self-love

Join Christine Esovoloff and I as we have a conversation about the honest truths of self-love, self-compassion, accountability, and more! A Happier Year is now available — an illustrated calendar with 366 science-based actions. Use the code "happycastlistener" for 10% off at checkout on http://ahappieryear.com [02:05] About Christine [02:47] About Dear Love, I’m Ready for You [03:12] Self love has so many definitions [04:22] Self-love isn’t an end point, it’s a journey [05:23] Chatting about study, self love helps you through failures [07:00] Treat yourself like you’d treat a friend [08:07] Why is it hard to be kind to ourselves? [08:49] Be gentle with yourself [09:53] Unpacking our baggage [11:40] Holding ourselves accountable [13:36] One size doesn’t fit all [14:30] How Christine got involved with the book [16:43] Outtro / where to find book / next week’s episode References: Miyagawa, Y., Niiya, Y., & Taniguchi, J. (2019). When Life Gives You Lemons , Make Lemonade : Self ‑ Compassion Increases Adaptive Beliefs About Failure.Journal of Happiness Studies, (0123456789). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00172-0 Dear Love, I’m Ready for You: Use discount code 'christine20' to get 20% off! https://goldenbrickroad.pub/products/dear-love-im-ready-for-you Find Christine on the web: instagram.com/the_ginger_journal www.thegingerjournal.ca


Friends, how they affect your brain chemistry

There’s a cocktail of chemicals swimming around in your brain in your brain when we have quality social relationships. A Happier Year is now available — an illustrated calendar with 366 science-based actions. Use the code "happycastlistener" for 10% off at checkout on ahappieryear.com [01:24] Release those endorphins with social drinking [05:16] Endogenous opioids from social laughter [08:36] Be your spouse’s friend! [10:30] But have other friends, because your cortisol responds to it. [14:45] Outtro References: Dunbar, R. I. M., Launay, J., Wlodarski, R., Robertson, C., Pearce, E., Carney, J., & Maccarron, P. (2017). Functional Benefits of ( Modest ) Alcohol Consumption,Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology, 3, 118–133. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40750-016-0058-4Manninen, S., Tuominen, L., Dunbar, R. I., Karjalainen, T., Hirvonen, J., Arponen, E., … Ja, I. P. (2017). Social Laughter Triggers Endogenous Opioid Release in Humans, 37(25), 6125–6131. https://doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0688-16.2017Grover, S., & Helliwell, J. F. (2019). How ’ s Life at Home ? New Evidence on Marriage and the Set Point for Happiness.Journal of Happiness Studies,20(2), 373–390. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-017-9941-3Keneski, E., Neff, L. A., & Loving, T. J. (2018). The Importance of a Few Good Friends : Perceived Network Support Moderates the Association Between Daily Marital Conflict and Diurnal Cortisol,9(8), 962–971. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550617731499


Strangers, maybe just friends you’ve never met

Those small interactions you have with strangers have quite a few hidden benefits! A Happier Year is now available — an illustrated calendar with 366 science-based actions. Use the code "happycastlistener" for 10% off at checkout on ahappieryear.com [00:42] Talk to strangers on your commute, it’ll make you happier [07:15] Little social interactions make us happier [09:19] Introverts still need to talk [11:45] Affective forecasting, the reason we don’t think we’ll enjoy eating spaghetti [13:28] Smile at strangers, it makes them feel included [14:18] Put your phone down, you’ll smile more References Epley, N., & Schroeder, J. (2014). Mistakenly Seeking Solitude,Journal of Experimental Psychology,143(5), 1980–1999.Sandstrom, G. M., & Dunn, E. W. (2014). Is Efficiency Overrated?: Minimal Social Interactions Lead to Belonging and Positive Affect,Social Psychological and Personality Science, 5(4), 437–442. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550613502990Zelenski, J. M., Whelan, D. C., Nealis, L. J., Besner, C. M., Santoro, M. S., & Wynn, J. E. (2013). Personality and Affective Forecasting : Trait Introverts Underpredict the Hedonic Benefits of Acting Extraverted,Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 104(6), 1092–1108. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0032281Wesselmann, E. D., Cardoso, F. D., Slater, S., & Williams, K. D. (2012). To Be Looked at as Though Air : Civil Attention Matters.Psychological Science,23(2) 166 –168. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797611427921Kushlev, K., Hunter, J. F., Proulx, J., Pressman, S. D., & Dunn, E. (2019). Computers in Human Behavior Smartphones reduce smiles between strangers.Computers in Human Behavior,91, 12–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2018.09.023 Huge thanks to Ashley for suggesting this week's topic! :)


Work is inevitable, happiness isn’t

How do we stay happy while working? [01:27] Overworking and happiness [07:25] Self-employment [10:20] Work Success [14:57] National well-being References: Kuroda, S., & Yamamoto, I. (2019). Why Do People Overwork at the Risk of Impairing Mental.Journal of Happiness Studies,20(5), 1519–1538. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-018-0008-xBujacz, A., Eib, C., & Toivanen, S. (2019). Not All Are Equal : A Latent Profile Analysis of Well ‑ Being Among the Self ‑ Employed.Journal of Happiness Studies, (0123456789). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00147-1Laguna, M., & Razmus, W. (2018). When I Feel My Business Succeeds , I Flourish : Reciprocal Relationships Between Positive Orientation , Work Engagement , and Entrepreneurial Success.Journal of Happiness Studies, (0123456789). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-018-0065-1Journal of Happiness Studies, (0123456789). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00080-3


Social support, a safety net for your happiness

Social support is so important. It can even impact your physiology. [01:15] Friends make life good [03:22] What is social support? [07:40] How can social support make you happier? [08:55] The biology of social support [11:54] Hugs References: Siedlecki, K.L., Salthouse, T.A., Oishi, S. and Sheena, J. (2014) The Relationship Between Social Support and Subjective Well- Being Across Age.Social Indicators Research, 117, 561-576. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-013-0361-4Hooker, E.D., Zoccola, P.M., and Dickerson S.S. (2018). Toward a Biology of Social Support. In Snyder, C.R., Lopez, S.J., Edwards, L.M., and Marques, S.C. (Eds.),The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology(3rd ed.), doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199396511.013.41 Cohen, S., Janicki-Deverts, D., Turner, R.B., & Doyle, W.J. (2015). Does hugging provide stress-buffering social support? A study of susceptibility to upper respiratory infection and illness.Psychological science,26(2), 135-47 .


Temporal discounting, get future you to thank you

How can valuing things in our future make us happier? [01:06] What is temporal discounting? [03:33] Those that discount the future and those that do not [06:00] Happiness and temporal discounting [09:07] Expecting something negative [11:30] So what can we do to stop discounting the future? References Story, G. W., Vlaev, I., Seymour, B., Darzi, A., & Dolan, R. J. (2014). Does temporal discounting explain unhealthy behavior ? A systematic review and reinforcement learning perspective,8(March), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2014.00076Kennedy, J. (2019). Subjective Wellbeing and the Discount Rate.Journal of Happiness Studies, (0123456789).https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-019-00096-9Golub, S. A., Gilbert, D. T., & Wilson, T. D. (2009). Anticipating One’s Troubles: The Costs and Benefits of Negative Expectations.Emotion,9(2), 277–281. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0014716Kim, H., Schnall, S., & White, M. P. (2013). Similar Psychological Distance Reduces Temporal Discounting. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167213488214


The peak-end rule, why quality matters for your happiness

Why are we sometimes less satisfied even though we have more? The peak-end rule can explain that! [00:00] Introduction [00:55] How can more pain be better? [03:15] Quality of years, not quantity [06:39] The order matters [08:44] Why we sometimes are satisfied with less [11:46] Vacation and happiness References Kahneman, D., Fredrickson, B. L., Schreiber, C. A., & Redelmeier, D. A. (1993). When More Pain Is Preferred To Less: Adding a Better End,4(6), 401–405.Diener, E., Wirtz, D., & Oishi, S. (2001). End Effects of Rated Life Quality: The James Dean Effect.Psychological Science,12(2), 124–128. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9280.00321Do, A. M., Rupert, A. V., & Wolford, G. (2008). Evaluations of pleasurable experiences: The peak-end rule.Psychonomic Bulletin and Review,15(1), 96–98. https://doi.org/10.3758/PBR.15.1.96Kemp, S., Burt, C.D., & Furneaux, L. (2008). A test of the peak – end rule.Memory and Cognition, 36(1), 132-138. https://doi.org/10.3758/MC.36.1.132


Adventure, there’s risk but there’s reward

Let’s dive into what adventure is and how adventure contributes to your well-being. [00:35] Intro [02:25] Family adventures [08:58] Adventure involves risk [11:05] Outdoor recreation and connection to places [12:52] Adventure and well-being References Pomfret, G., & Varley, P. (2019). Families at leisure outdoors : well-being through adventure.Leisure Studies, 1–15.https://doi.org/10.1080/02614367.2019.1600574 Kulczycki, C., & Lück, M. (2009). Outdoor Adventure Tourism, Wellness, And Place Attachment. In : Wellness and Tourism: Mind, Body, Spirit, Place (pp. 165-176). Cognizant Communications.


Emotional contagion at work, unhappy customers and you

As a customer, your emotions can rub off on employees. As an employee, you can catch others emotions. Learn how this can affect you. As a customer, your emotions can rub off on employees. As an employee, you can catch others emotions. Learn how this can affect you. [00:00] Introduction [01:12] Your attitude can influence your customer experience. [05:23] Deep acting and reframing the situation [08:00] Angry customers [11:00] Fun detour: Psychopaths & emotional contagion References Liu, X., Chi, N., & Gremler, D. D. (2019). Emotion Cycles in Services : Emotional Contagion and Emotional Labor Effects. Journal of Service Research, 22(10), 285–300. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670519835309 Hennig-thurau, T., Groth, M., & Gremler, D. D. (2006). Are All Smiles Created Equal ? How Emotional Contagion and Emotional Labor Affect Service Relationships.Journal of Marketing, 57–73. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkg.70.3.58 Dallimore, K. S., Sparks, B. A., & Butcher, K. (2007). The Influence of Angry Customer Outbursts on Service Providers ’ Facial Displays and Affective States.Journal of Service Research, 10(1), 78–92.https://doi.org/10.1177/1094670507304694 Luckhurst, C., Hatfield, E., & Gelvin-smith, C. (2017). Articles Capacity for Empathy and Emotional Contagion in Those With Psychopathic Personalities.Interpersona. https://doi.org/10.5964/ijpr.v11i1.247


Emotional contagion, not just measles that are contagious

Emotions are contagious! Learn how and why so that you can be aware. [00:00] Introduction [01:06] Overview of how emotions are contagious [03:02] What is emotional contagion? [07:54] Exaggerating your facial expression [08:54] Botox and emotions [12:15] Talking on the phone and catching emotions References Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., Rapson, R. L., Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J. T., & Rapson, R. L. (1993). Emotional Contagion. Current Directions, 2(3), 96–99. Hatfield, E., Bensman, L., Thornton, P. D., & Rapson, R. L. (2014). New Perspectives on Emotional Contagion : A Review of Classic and Recent Research on Facial Mimicry and Contagion. Interpersona, https://doi.org/10.5964/ijpr.v8i2.162 Neal, D. T., & Chartrand, T. L. (2011). Embodied emotion perception: Amplifying and dampening facial feedback modulates emotion perception accuracy. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 2, 673-678. doi:10.1177/1948550611406138Coyne, J. C. (1976). Depression and the response of others. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186–193.


Compassion, empathy in action

Empathy is walking in someone’s shoes. Compassion puts your empathy into action. [00:21] What is compassion? [05:07] Empathy vs Compassion [07:45] Compassion can make you happier [09:50] Compassion can reduce anxiety [11:50] Loving kindness meditation References Singer, T., & Klimecki, O. M. (2014). Empathy and compassion.Current Biology, 24(1), 875–878.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2014.06.054Mongrain, M., Chin, J. M., & Shapira, L. B. (2011). Practicing Compassion Increases Happiness and Self-Esteem,Journal of Happiness Studies, 12(6),963–981. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-010-9239-1Demorest, A. P. (2019). Happiness , love , and compassion as antidotes for anxiety Happiness , love , and compassion as antidotes for anxiety.The Journal of Positive Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2019.1627399Fredrickson, B.L., Cohn, M.A., Coffey, K.A., Pek, J., and Finkel, S.M. (2008). Open hearts build lives: positive emotions, induced through loving- kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 95, 1045–1062.


Time, creating more of it

We can alter how we perceive time. Maybe you feel like time is really scarce, learn about the psychology of how to make time feel more plentiful! [00:00] Intro [01:49] Time and awe [05:34] Time perception [09:29] Buying time [11:50] Making your life seem longer [15:30] What did we learn today? References: Rudd, M., Vohs, K. D., & Aaker, J. (2012). Awe Expands People’s Perception of Time, Alters Decision Making, and Enhances Well-Being. Psychological Science 23(10) 1130 –1136.https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797612438731Niiya, Y. (2019). My Time, Your Time, or Our Time ? Time Perception and Its Associations with Interpersonal Goals and Life Outcomes.Journal of Happiness Studies,20(5), 1439–1455. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-018-0007-yWhillans, A. V, Dunn, E. W., Smeets, P., Bekkers, R., & Norton, M. I. (2017). Buying time promotes happiness. PNAS 114(32), 8523–8527.https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1706541114Zhang, J. W., & Howell, R. T. (2011). Do time perspectives predict unique variance in life satisfaction beyond personality traits ?Personality and Individual Differences,50(8), 1261–1266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2011.02.021Wittmann, M., & Lehnhoff, S. (2005). Age effects in perception of time.Psychological Reports,97, 921-935. https://doi.org/10.2466/PR0.97.7.921-935