Virginia became a crown colony in 1625, just months before Charles I took the throne. This episode discusses the transition, the new issues which would define Virginia history under royal control, and outlines the history of the colony up until John Harvey arrived as governor.
Concluding the story of Maryland's founding, an overview of the known events of 1639-42. Claiborne's agitation, Susquehannoc hostility, Baltimore feuds with the Jesuits and Protestants start to seize political control within the colony.
Maryland finalizes its legal system, ending up with a document which looked remarkably similar to a Bill of Rights. A huge amount of debate preceeded that, though. This episode examines existing primary sources to try to investigate that debate, a huge amount of which revolved around the issue of church rights.
Claiborne and Marylanders battle over Kent Island, Governor Harvey is deposed, and the fight for Kent Island goes to the courts of England. George Evelin helps Calvert take over Kent Island, and the Second General Assembly raises questions of governance.
Maryland settlers establish St. Mary's, meet the local Indians, grow enough corn to trade with New England, and hold their first legislative assembly. They also conflict with William Claiborne, part of a Puritan faction in Virginia dedicated to pushing the conservative, Catholic Marylanders out.
Lord Baltimore gets a charter, but Virginia opposes this, seeing it as an encroachment on their territory. Baltimore stays in London to deal with legal disputes, but the rest of the colonists sail for Maryland. After a long, eventful voyage the colonists arrived at the Chesapeake.
Maryland was founded as a colonial refuge for English Catholics, named after the Catholic Queen of England, Henrietta Maria. So, our discussion of Maryland begins with a discussion of what life was like for 17th Century English Catholics, and how King Charles's wife affected it.
The magistrates and deputies clash on the institutions of the Standing Council and the negative voice, and a lawsuit by Roger Keayne over Goody Sherman's sow plays a key role in this. The deputies represent democracy, and the magistrates aristocracy.
After the Block Island Raid, the Pequots laid siege to Saybrook, and both sides prepared for war. After the Pequots attacked Wethersfield, Connecticut, the English declared war. A small force snuck into the heart of Pequot territory for a surprise attack on the largest Pequot fort, Mystic. They burned it, killed all its inhabitants, and won the war in a single hour.
At the same time as the Antinomian Controversy raged, war broke out with the Pequots. In 1637, the Pequots were a tribe on the decline, but thanks to misinformation, still terrifying to the English. After the murder of John Oldham, Massachusetts sent John Endicott on a retaliatory raid. This raid led to war.
Four days after clergy held a synod to determine theological truths, the Court decided to eliminate the heresy by any means necessary. Wheelwright and Anne Hutchinson were convicted of sedition and banished after long, heated trials, and their supporters were given the choice between recanting and banishment. Under increasing scrutiny, and faced with a complete lack of control of the movement, Cotton finally turned against it.
Also known as the Free Grace Controversy, this dispute pitted John Winthrop and most non-Boston leadership against Anne Hutchinson, Henry Vane and John Wheelwright (supported by John Cotton). It was a battle for the theological and political heart of the colony.
As the king prepared to fully take over Massachusetts, the colonists first dabbled with the idea of independence. Meanwhile, a new group of settlers arrived with a patent to colonize an area of Connecticut. A second group left Massachusetts for Connecticut after clashes with John Cotton, and Roger Williams was exiled, and spent the winter with the Narragansetts before founding Providence, Rhode Island. The beginnings of trade were also emerging.
When Archbishop Laud investigated Massachusetts's activities, he learned that the charter had been taken to America, and prepared to take over the colony. With the looming threat, the colony worked hard to keep its citizens from provoking a confrontation with the king. It was in this atmosphere that John Endicott cut the St. George Cross from Salem's royal standard. In addition, as French, Dutch, Plymouth and Massachusetts settlers competed for land, a series of territorial disputes took...
1633 was the year that the problems which would plague the Bay Colony emerged. Theological and governmental debate, threats from rival colonial powers, and an Indian attack all preoccupied colonists' minds - while from England, the colony's opponents attacked its charter.