A quick episode back in England, discussing the polarizing experience of war, which drove thousands of new immigrants to the colonies, and also created a seriously different mindset between new colonists and old ones.
The biggest threat yet to Massachusetts Bay autonomy also provoked some of its most ruthless political suppression. But, the colony wins, the deputies and magistrates unite, a new synod of New England Churches is planned, and if anything, the region's status quo is strengthened. Plus, Plymouth's Edward Winslow goes back to England to advocate on Massachusetts's behalf, and becomes increasingly involved in Parliamentary governance.
When Parliament allows Samuel Gorton to appeal decisions made by the Massachusetts General Court, a small group of disgruntled New Englanders gets together to push for reform in Massachusetts, in a way which threatens the autonomy the colony has always valued so much.
Bermuda Presbyterians beg for an anti-Congregationalist governor, and when they get him, retaliation pushes Congregationalists to England, where they become a focal point of the debate between Presbyterians and Independents.
Barbados maintains its neutrality, despite repeated attempts by Parliament to push it to declare its allegiance.
Berkeley returns from England to find the Powhatan War mismanaged. Calvert returns from Virginia to reinstate Maryland's Proprietary government. But ... the last remaining Royalist port, Bristol, falls, an event which spells trouble for all American colonies, not just Royalist ones. Also, Opechancanough is murdered.
Richard Ingle returns to Maryland to lead a revolt which topples Maryland's Catholic leadership, and steals everything they own. Fathers White and Copley return to England as prisoners, and Calvert escapes to Virginia.
Congregationalists seize control of Bermuda's government and Church, imposing an era of oppression of the colony's Royalists/Anglicans and Presbyterians. The Third Anglo-Powhatan War begins, and William Claiborne and Richard Ingle join forces for an attack on Maryland. Plus, we briefly discuss the life of Thomas Rolfe, son of Pocahontas and John Rolfe.
Deputies clash with magistrates and Presbyterians with Congregationalists, resulting in Massachusetts's most heated political battle since 1636, and leading John Winthrop to give his famous "Little Speech on Liberty."
ANNOUNCEMENT: I'm planning to change the name of this podcast, either to "American Origins" or "Rejects & Revolutionaries."
Richard Ingle is arrested for treason in Maryland, Virginia starts kicking out Puritans, Barbados takes a unique approach to avoiding factional conflict, and Barbados colonist James Drax asks the Dutch for help cultivating sugar.
In 1643, the debate between the deputies and the magistrates intensified in Massachusetts, and puritans in both old and New England debated the merits of Presbyterianism and Congregationalism. The fundamental issue underlying both controversies was how far the revolution should go. Should England retain an aristocratic hierarchy, or move toward democracy?
This episode is identical to the last episode, but because I'd uploaded a truncated file the last time, and the file change itself can cause some technical glitches, I'm just re-uploading this as a whole new episode. This one will expire at the end of the month.
In 1637, investor hopes were at an all time high. By 1639, they were slipping further into debt despite their privateers having 300,000 pounds worth of goods from the Spanish. And, the colony was becoming less orderly, despite the concessions they were making to the colonists, and despite sending the best governor yet to the colony. Add in a couple slave revolts, and the Island was for all intents and purposes past the point of no return.
The company rearranged to accommodate colonists and reap the rewards from privateering, but just when they thought things were going great, Providence Island civilians issued an ultimatum. They would leave if the company didn't meet their demands.
Providence Island revived the Elizabethan dream of colonization - chipping away at the Spanish Empire and protecting Protestantism through bold confrontation. After a Spanish attack in 1635, the struggling colony was allowed to engage in privateering, something investors justifiably hoped would save the venture.
It's easy to write off the past as a time of backward thinking and oppressive religious beliefs, but in this episode, we explore the ideological divisions of the Puritan movement a little bit, and see that things aren't quite as simple as that.
Plus, the worsening of problems on Providence Island, faction fighting, needing a reliable commodity, increased fear of the Spanish, and worsening of company debt.
The first years of Providence Island's experience were defined by two familiar problems: factionalism, and economic stagnation. Though they were all puritans who would soon be parliamentarians, colonists in the 1630s were at each other's throats. And, the company wanted economic returns without providing the plan or tools (especially labor) to achieve that. But, they had two new solutions to those problems. For factionalism, they would keep all power concentrated in London. For labor, they...