Humankind’s enlightenment was not something that began and ended within that period from the late Eighteenth Century to the early Nineteenth Century that we now call the Enlightenment. It is an ongoing process that seems to progress more quickly during some periods than in others.
How do thoughts cause actions and how can “real world” events prompt perception and thought? This is the enigma that philosophers call the “mind body problem.” Descartes postulated that the necessary mediation between mental and material activity occurs in the pineal gland at the front of the brain, but as an explanation this was speculative, implausible and inadequate. To-date nobody has proposed a satisfactory answer to the mind body problem.