Learning Machines 101-logo

Learning Machines 101

Technology News >

More Information


LM101-076: How to Choose the Best Model using AIC and GAIC

In this episode, we explain the proper semantic interpretation of the Akaike Information Criterion (AIC) and the Generalized Akaike Information Criterion (GAIC) for the purpose of picking the best model for a given set of training data. The precise semantic interpretation of these model selection criteria is provided, explicit assumptions are provided for the AIC and GAIC to be valid, and explicit formulas are provided for the AIC and GAIC so they can be used in practice. Briefly, AIC and...


LM101-075: Can computers think? A Mathematician's Response (remix)

In this episode, we explore the question of what can computers do as well as what computers can’t do using the Turing Machine argument. Specifically, we discuss the computational limits of computers and raise the question of whether such limits pertain to biological brains and other non-standard computing machines. This episode is dedicated to the memory of my mom, Sandy Golden. To learn more about Turing Machines, SuperTuring Machines, Hypercomputation, and my Mom, check out:...


LM101-074: How to Represent Knowledge using Logical Rules (remix)

In this episode we will learn how to use “rules” to represent knowledge. We discuss how this works in practice and we explain how these ideas are implemented in a special architecture called the production system. The challenges of representing knowledge using rules are also discussed. Specifically, these challenges include: issues of feature representation, having an adequate number of rules, obtaining rules that are not inconsistent, and having rules that handle special cases and...


LM101-073: How to Build a Machine that Learns to Play Checkers (remix)

This is a remix of the original second episode Learning Machines 101 which describes in a little more detail how the computer program that Arthur Samuel developed in 1959 learned to play checkers by itself without human intervention using a mixture of classical artificial intelligence search methods and artificial neural network learning algorithms. The podcast ends with a book review of Professor Nilsson’s book: “The Quest for Artificial Intelligence: A History of Ideas and Achievements”....


LM101-072: Welcome to the Big Artificial Intelligence Magic Show! (Remix of LM101-001 and LM101-002)

This podcast is basically a remix of the first and second episodes of Learning Machines 101 and is intended to serve as the new introduction to the Learning Machines 101 podcast series. The search for common organizing principles which could support the foundations of machine learning and artificial intelligence is discussed and the concept of the Big Artificial Intelligence Magic Show is introduced. At the end of the podcast, the book After Digital: Computation as Done by Brains and...


LM101-071: How to Model Common Sense Knowledge using First-Order Logic and Markov Logic Nets

In this podcast, we provide some insights into the complexity of common sense. First, we discuss the importance of building common sense into learning machines. Second, we discuss how first-order logic can be used to represent common sense knowledge. Third, we describe a large database of common sense knowledge where the knowledge is represented using first-order logic which is free for researchers in machine learning. We provide a hyperlink to this free database of common sense knowledge....


LM101-070: How to Identify Facial Emotion Expressions in Images Using Stochastic Neighborhood Embedding

This 70th episode of Learning Machines 101 we discuss how to identify facial emotion expressions in images using an advanced clustering technique called Stochastic Neighborhood Embedding. We discuss the concept of recognizing facial emotions in images including applications to problems such as: improving online communication quality, identifying suspicious individuals such as terrorists using video cameras, improving lie detector tests, improving athletic performance by providing emotion...


LM101-069: What Happened at the 2017 Neural Information Processing Systems Conference?

This 69 episode of Learning Machines 101 provides a short overview of the 2017 Neural Information Processing Systems conference with a focus on the development of methods for teaching learning machines rather than simply training them on examples. In addition, a book review of the book “Deep Learning” is provided. #nips2017


LM101-068: How to Design Automatic Learning Rate Selection for Gradient Descent Type Machine Learning Algorithms

This 68th episode of Learning Machines 101 discusses a broad class of unsupervised, supervised, and reinforcement machine learning algorithms which iteratively update their parameter vector by adding a perturbation based upon all of the training data. This process is repeated, making a perturbation of the parameter vector based upon all of the training data until a parameter vector is generated which exhibits improved predictive performance. The magnitude of the perturbation at each learning...


LM101-067: How to use Expectation Maximization to Learn Constraint Satisfaction Solutions (Rerun)

In this episode we discuss how to learn to solve constraint satisfaction inference problems. The goal of the inference process is to infer the most probable values for unobservable variables. These constraints, however, can be learned from experience. Specifically, the important machine learning method for handling unobservable components of the data using Expectation Maximization is introduced. Check it out at: www.learningmachines101.com


LM101-066: How to Solve Constraint Satisfaction Problems using MCMC Methods (Rerun)

In this episode of Learning Machines 101 (www.learningmachines101.com) we discuss how to solve constraint satisfaction inference problems where knowledge is represented as a large unordered collection of complicated probabilistic constraints among a collection of variables. The goal of the inference process is to infer the most probable values of the unobservable variables given the observable variables. Specifically, Monte Carlo Markov Chain ( MCMC ) methods are discussed.


LM101-065: How to Design Gradient Descent Learning Machines (Rerun)

In this episode rerun we introduce the concept of gradient descent which is the fundamental principle underlying learning in the majority of deep learning and neural network learning algorithms. Check out the website: www.learningmachines101.com to obtain a transcript of this episode!


LM101-064: Stochastic Model Search and Selection with Genetic Algorithms (Rerun)

In this rerun of episode 24 we explore the concept of evolutionary learning machines. That is, learning machines that reproduce themselves in the hopes of evolving into more intelligent and smarter learning machines. This leads us to the topic of stochastic model search and evaluation. Check out the blog with additional technical references at: www.learningmachines101.com


LM101-063: How to Transform a Supervised Learning Machine into a Policy Gradient Reinforcement Learning Machine

This 63rd episode of Learning Machines 101 discusses how to build reinforcement learning machines which become smarter with experience but do not use this acquired knowledge to modify their actions and behaviors. This episode explains how to build reinforcement learning machines whose behavior evolves as the learning machines become increasingly smarter. The essential idea for the construction of such reinforcement learning machines is based upon first developing a supervised learning...


LM101-062: How to Transform a Supervised Learning Machine into a Value Function Reinforcement Learning Machine

This 62nd episode of Learning Machines 101 (www.learningmachines101.com) discusses how to design reinforcement learning machines using your knowledge of how to build supervised learning machines! Specifically, we focus on Value Function Reinforcement Learning Machines which estimate the unobservable total penalty associated with an episode when only the beginning of the episode is observable. This estimated Value Function can then be used by the learning machine to select a particular action...


LM101-061: What happened at the Reinforcement Learning Tutorial? (RERUN)

This is the third of a short subsequence of podcasts providing a summary of events associated with Dr. Golden’s recent visit to the 2015 Neural Information Processing Systems Conference. This is one of the top conferences in the field of Machine Learning. This episode reviews and discusses topics associated with the Introduction to Reinforcement Learning with Function Approximation Tutorial presented by Professor Richard Sutton on the first day of the conference. This episode is a RERUN of...


LM101-060: How to Monitor Machine Learning Algorithms using Anomaly Detection Machine Learning Algorithms

This 60th episode of Learning Machines 101 discusses how one can use novelty detection or anomaly detection machine learning algorithms to monitor the performance of other machine learning algorithms deployed in real world environments. The episode is based upon a review of a talk by Chief Data Scientist Ira Cohen of Anodot presented at the 2016 Berlin Buzzwords Data Science Conference. Check out: www.learningmachines101.com to hear the podcast or read a transcription of the podcast!


LM101-059: How to Properly Introduce a Neural Network

I discuss the concept of a “neural network” by providing some examples of recent successes in neural network machine learning algorithms and providing a historical perspective on the evolution of the neural network concept from its biological origins. For more details visit us at: www.learningmachines101.com


LM101-058: How to Identify Hallucinating Learning Machines using Specification Analysis

In this 58th episode of Learning Machines 101, I’ll be discussing an important new scientific breakthrough published just last week for the first time in the journal Econometrics in the special issue on model misspecification titled “Generalized Information Matrix Tests for Detecting Model Misspecification”. The article provides a unified theoretical framework for the development of a wide range of methods for determining if a learning machine is capable of learning its statistical...


LM101-057: How to Catch Spammers using Spectral Clustering

In this 57th episode, we explain how to use unsupervised machine learning algorithms to catch internet criminals who try to steal your money electronically! Check it out at: www.learningmachines101.com