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20: Stava Dam

On the 19th of July, 1985 in Tesero, Northern Italy, a tailings dam gave way and killed 268 people. With the most common tailings dam design in the world, what went wrong and how widespread are the risks? With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: Stava tailings dam failureWater Management Considerations for Conventional StorageConventional Impoundment Storage - The current techniquesThe Stava Mudflow of 19 July 1985LiquefactionThe Val di Stava Dam CollapseMine Tailings Safety Stava...


19: Smiler

In 2015 at Alton Towers in the UK, The Smiler Rollercoaster experienced a major incident leading to severe injuries for multiple riders. We look at how pressure to get the ride running again and mis-communication defeated the system designed to protect the riders. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: Alton TowersThe SmilerHow Alton Towers Smiler Crash UnfoldedAlton Towers Smiler Crash Footage ReleasedAlton Towers Smiler Ride Reopens Support Causality on Patreon


18: The Fog

In 1952 a fog in London left 4,000 dead in just 4 days but many more would die before the causes could be rectified. Worse than that, it had happened before and it’s happening again right now, somewhere else. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: Inversion (meteorology)Great Smog of LondonBattersea Power StationClean Air Act 1956Trams in London1948 Donora SmogPollution in China Support Causality on Patreon


17: Three Mile Island

On March 28, 1979 Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Plant in the United States of America an incident would lead to a partial reactor core meltdown. Many blamed the operators for stopping the reactor cooling system but the real root causes showed a known flaw in the design and alarm flooding had blinded the operators to what was actually happening. With John Chidgey. Related episodes: Causality Episode 3: Fukushima Links of potential interest: Three Mile Island accidentThree Mile...


16: Tenerife

In 1977 on the small island of Tenerife two 747 Jumbo Jets collided on the runway in poor visibility. A miscommunication clearly occurred, but even today, the same elements still exist and it could happen again. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: Tenerife-North AirportTeideSurface Movement RadarAir Travels Communications KillerFlight GlobalAnother 737NG PFD Question Support Causality on Patreon


15: Sampoong Department Store

The Sampoong Department Store in South Korea collapsed in 1995 killing over 500 people. The investigators were shocked to find just how many rules had been broken but the true root cause might have been something more innocuous. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: Failures of the Sampoong Department StoreSampoong Department Store CollapseSampoong Superstore PDF Support Causality on Patreon


14: Concorde

The Concorde was the first commercially successful supersonic aeroplane that flew for nearly 25 years without a fatality and was considered the safest aeroplane in the world at the time until it crashed. The incident ended the lives of 113 people and it ultimately ended the Concorde itself. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: Tupolev Tu-144Concorde40 Fascinating Facts About The ConcordeThe Concorde SST Accident ReportThe Untold Story of the Concorde DisasterAircraft Runway...


13: Costa Concordia

A near-new modern cruise liner with all the navigational aids and maps struck rocks and sank killing over 30 people and the man most responsible still walks free today. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: Costa ConcordiaCosta Concordia DisasterCosta Concordia - What HappenedThe Costa Concordia SinkingCosta Concordia Maritime Accident CasebookDraft (hull)Costa Concordia Captain’s Appeal RejectedItaly Court Upholds Costa Concordia Captain’s Sentence Support Causality on Patreon


12: Mont Blanc Tunnel

The Mont Blanc tunnel cut hours off the journey between Italy and France and in 1999 in a fire emergency services were unable to save 38 lives. We look at why. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: Mont Blanc TunnelCulvertNFPA - Highway Vehicle FiresThe Fire TriangleCarbon Monoxide Poisoning Support Causality on Patreon


11: Flint Michigan

For decades Flint Michigan derived safe drinking water from Detroit. When the supply was switched to save money a series of events unfolded and their supply became undrinkable. How could this happen? With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: Lead and Copper RuleHere’s what drinking water pipes look like with and without corrosion controlFlint Corrosion Control PresentationHow Lead Ended Up In Flint’s Tap WaterList of Five Basic & Immediate Needs for Physical Human SurvivalHow Long...


10: The Comet

The Comet was the worlds first commercial jet aeroplane and those that flew aboard it formed the so-called JetSet. When they started to crash, the world of aviation changed forever. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: de Havilland CometASN Aviation Safety DatabaseFlying back to the FiftiesFrank WhittleEffects of high altitude on humansMaterial Fatiguede HavillandBOAC Flight 781Disaster in the AirNon-destructive Testing Applications in Commercial Aircraft Maintenance Support...


9: Hindenburg

The largest airship ever constructed burst into flames when trying to land in 1937 in New Jersey in what has become one of the most striking disasters of modern times. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: LZ 129 HindenburgHindenburg DisasterR101Flash PointHindenburg Passenger TicketHerbert Morrison Support Causality on Patreon


8: Challenger

The Challenger Space Shuttle was directed to launch on the coldest day on record in Florida and 73 seconds after launch it exploded but the engineers saw it coming. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: The Challenger Crew Plunged to Their DeathsMoonraker - IMDbSpace ShuttleSpace Shuttle ChallengerSpace Shuttle Challenger DisasterNASA Shuttle MissionsList of Space Shuttle MissionsThiokolChallenger: Twenty Years Later, Lessons Never LearnedSpace Ship TwoMax QThe Challenger Launch...


7: Piper Alpha

The Piper Oil field in the North Sea became the site of one of the worst Offshore Oil Rig disasters in history when Piper Platform Alpha went up in flames. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: Human Factors and Ergonomics for Shift HandoverPiper AlphaNatural-gas Condensate Support Causality on Patreon


6: Amagasaki

The Amagasaki rail crash was entirely caused by human error but was it a fear of punishment by the company that was ultimately the cause. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: Amagasaki Rail CrashFukuchiyama LineICAO - Annexes BookletICAO - Personnel Licensing FAQJTSB Accident Report English ExtractAircraft and Railway Accidents Investigation CommissionFatigueJR West Punished Staff Support Causality on Patreon


5: Maccabiah

The 15th Maccabiah Games in 1997 had a temporary bridge for the opening ceremony. The world was shocked when it failed and it did so on every level. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: 1997 Maccabiah GamesMaccabiah GamesThe Maccabiah Bridge CollapseGoogle Maps: The Site of the DisasterAustralia/Israel Review: The Bridge Too FarPhil Moss Recalls the Tragic Death of Four Aussies…Maccabiah TragedyAustralian Jews blast Rehiring of Officials Responsible for the Maccabiah...


4: Titanic

The Titanic famously sank on her maiden voyage with a huge loss of life. No ship is unsinkable. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: List of Ships Sunk by IcebergsTitanic TimelineTime LineTitanic: The Myth of the Unsinkable ShipSeamen’s ActRMS TitanicTitanic Facts: Statistics about The Sinking of the ShipLifeboats of the RMS TitanicWas the Titanic Ever Publicised as Unsinkable?Why Did People Believe Titanic Was Unsinkable?Titanic Deckplans : Tank TopRMS RepublicInternational...


3: Fukushima

What went wrong with Fukushima 1 Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in 2011. With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: List of Nuclear Power StationsNuclear ReactorWater for Power Plant CoolingWhy Fukushima Was PreventableFukushima Daiichi Nuclear Disaster2011 Toøhoku Earthquake and TsunamiSoøma, FukushimaFukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power PlantS.C.R.A.M.Chicago Pile-1Zirconium AlloyReview of the Oxidation Rate of Zirconium AlloysIAEA Warned Japan Over Nuclear Quake RiskTimeline for the...


2: Don't Roll On Me

Roll cages in cars are supposed to improve safety but do they actually cause the problem they're trying to protect you from? With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: RolloverA METHODOLOGY FOR ESTIMATING VEHICLE ROLLOVER PROPENSITY THAT COMBINES STABILITY FACTOR AND HANDLING METRICS (PDF)Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) | National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)Center of MassCDC Mining RisksTraffic Safety Facts: PedestriansU.S Census Bureau Population...


1: BP Texas City

The BP Texas City Oil Refinery disaster in 2005 shocked the world. With safe-guards in place and lost-time injury rates so low, how could so many people be killed in a wholly preventable disaster? With John Chidgey. Links of potential interest: The U.S. Chemical Safety BoardTexas City Refinery ExplosionIsomerizationHuman Factors Influencing The Texas City IncidentLessons from Disaster: How Organizations Have No Memory and Accidents RecurDiesel Engine RunawayBP Completes Sale of Texas City...


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