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Raise the Line

Education Podcasts

Join hosts Shiv Gaglani, Michael Carrese, Hillary Acer and Derek Apanovitch for an ongoing exploration of how to improve health and healthcare with prominent figures and pioneers in healthcare innovation such as Chelsea Clinton, Mark Cuban, Dr. Ashish Jha, Dr. Eric Topol, Dr. Vivian Lee and Sal Khan as well as senior leaders at organizations such as the CDC, National Institutes of Health, Johns Hopkins University, WHO, Harvard University, NYU Langone and many others.


United States


Join hosts Shiv Gaglani, Michael Carrese, Hillary Acer and Derek Apanovitch for an ongoing exploration of how to improve health and healthcare with prominent figures and pioneers in healthcare innovation such as Chelsea Clinton, Mark Cuban, Dr. Ashish Jha, Dr. Eric Topol, Dr. Vivian Lee and Sal Khan as well as senior leaders at organizations such as the CDC, National Institutes of Health, Johns Hopkins University, WHO, Harvard University, NYU Langone and many others.




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How to Support Dentists to Be the Best They Can Be - Dr. Rick Workman, Founder and Pat Bauer, CEO of Heartland Dental

Group dental practices are common now, but that was not the case thirty years ago when solo practitioners dominated the space. On this special episode of Raise the Line produced in collaboration with Areo Dental, we’re going to hear from two leading figures in changing that paradigm, Dr. Rick Workman, the founder and executive chairman of Heartland Dental and Pat Bauer, the company’s CEO. As you’ll learn in this fascinating conversation led by Areo Dental’s co-CEOs -- Dr. Anushka Gaglani and Dr. Abhishek Nagaraj -- Workman and Bauer grew Heartland from a handful of practices into the largest dental support organization in the US with more than 1,700 locations. Workman attributes that success to thinking of their members as customers, and making sure to create value for them and respect for dentistry. “We have to understand they have to have clinical autonomy and our job is to do everything we can to make their lives better and easier and to always honor the patient.” Heartland does that by providing everything from operational support to benchmarking for quality assurance to vetting technology, among many other services. From a business perspective, Bauer thinks an additional factor in Heartland’s growth has been being in synch with the needs and goals of the practices. “It's about alignment with our doctors, alignment with the owners, alignment with all the teams, and that led us to be able to continue to grow because more and more people become successful.” Don’t miss this unique opportunity to learn about the evolution of dental practices in the US, what it means for patients, and what lies ahead for the field. Mentioned in this episode: https://www.areodental.com/ https://heartland.com/


Uber’s Growing Role in Healthcare - Dr. Mike Cantor, Chief Medical Officer of Uber Health

It's safe to say the majority of people reading this post have used Uber as a ride service, and many have also tapped Uber Eats for food delivery. What you might be less familiar with is the Uber Health platform that enables healthcare organizations to arrange rides and services on behalf of patients including deliveries of prescriptions, groceries, and over-the-counter items to their homes. Patients don’t need to have an Uber account, credit card or even a smartphone because everything is handled for them by a care coordinator. According to our guest Dr. Mike Cantor, the company’s chief medical officer, the aim is to make the healthcare system more efficient and effective by improving access to the services people need to stay healthy. “In the value-based care system where you can save money by being preventive and keeping people away from hospitals, Uber is potentially a really good set of solutions for the healthcare system and ultimately for the patients as well,” he says. Cantor is well-placed to help guide Uber’s potential impact on healthcare because of his rich background as a clinician and executive working on quality improvement and care management programs for healthcare providers and health plans. Don’t miss this fascinating discussion with host Derek Apanovitch about how healthcare delivery is being impacted by one of today’s most disruptive and innovative companies, and learn what partnerships Uber is forming to grow its healthcare role including support for caregivers. Mentioned in this episode: https://www.uberhealth.com/


Creating Positive Social Impact As A Physician Entrepreneur - Dr. Navin Goyal, Co-founder of LOUD Capital

Today's guest fits into one of Raise the Line’s favorite categories of people: physician entrepreneur. We've talked before on the podcast about the overlapping qualities of drive, curiosity, and desire for impact that both share, and that last trait is the core interest of Dr. Navin Goyal. A great example is OFFOR Health, a mobile healthcare company he co-founded that expedites care for children in the US who face long waits for procedures. “If you’re a four-year-old with dental disease and you're on Medicaid, you have an average nine-to-twelve month wait to get into an operating room. We can enable that procedure within one month,” says Goyal. His experience with OFFOR led to the formation of LOUD Capital, which allows Goyal and his partners to seek out other business opportunities that have a social impact. Since launching in 2015, LOUD has partnered with over seventy portfolio companies in healthcare and beyond. But despite his success, Goyal has embraced the concept of being an underdog, hence the title of the book about his journey, Physician Underdog, and his weekly newsletter Underdog for Good. Check out this episode with host Shiv Gaglani to find out why he likes the term, what qualities a potential investment needs to have to get him excited and what he sees as a key upside to having physicians working in a variety of industries. Mentioned in this episode: https://www.loud.vc/ Underdog for Good Newsletter Physician Underdog Book Beyond Physician


Communication About Public Health Should Be A Conversation - Dr. Jan Carney, Associate Dean for Public Health and Health Policy at The Larner College of Medicine at the University of Vermont

One silver lining of the COVID-19 pandemic is a jump in enrollments in public health degree programs and that’s welcome news to Dr. Jan Carney, director of the Master of Public Health program at the University of Vermont's Larner College of Medicine, who believes the field needs a massive injection of personnel. “We need probably an 80% increase in people working in state and local health departments to have the essentials of public health.” As Vermont’s former Commissioner of Health, Carney knows the challenges public health officials face and brings those insights to Larner’s online-only MPH program, which covers the broad domains of the field from epidemiology to biostatistics to environmental health and also exposes students to the particular health challenges in rural communities. The program also prepares students for perhaps the biggest challenge facing the field: communication of health information in an era of misinformation. To that end, Carney is urging more ascertainment of how different groups of people prefer to receive information and is suggesting a major change in approach. “Maybe we can start to think of public health communication more as a conversation than a one-way information flow.” Join host Michael Carrese for insights from a national force in public health into how education is evolving to prepare public health practitioners for their vital work in challenging times for the profession. Mentioned in this episode: https://www.uvm.edu/publichealth/


An Approach to Psychedelic Therapy Inspired by Indigenous Traditions - Dr. Jeeshan Chowdhury, Founder and CEO of Journey Colab

Raise the Line’s in-depth look at the potential use of psychedelic compounds in mental health treatment continues today with a focus on the role they may play in helping people overcome substance use disorders. Our guest is Dr. Jeeshan Chowdhury, whose own mental health journey led him to found Journey Colab, a company combating addiction through psychedelic care while employing a unique stakeholder model that includes indigenous communities in ownership. “We have put 10% of the founding equity of the company into an irrevocable purpose trust so that the land, the traditions and the people that our medicines and our work are inspired from can benefit from it,” explains Chowdhury. He tells host Shiv Gaglani that indigenous traditions also inform how the company approaches psychedelic therapy itself. “When we look at their use, it is always done in the context of an expert healer, often called a shaman, and it's done as part of a very well-honed protocol and in the context of a larger community.” Check out this thoughtful discussion to find out why Chowdhury thinks of the therapeutic use of psychedelics as akin to surgery, and how Journey Colab is working with rehab center partners to integrate psychedelic care through clinical trials with the goal of creating an integrated treatment program. Mentioned in this episode: https://www.journeycolab.com


The Power of Providers to Improve Healthcare - Dr. Bruno Lagoeiro, Executive Director for Digital Products at Afya

Today’s episode touches on some regular themes we explore on Raise the Line such as equal access to quality healthcare, provider burnout and the impact of AI on medicine, but on this episode, we have the welcome opportunity to take a look at these key issues from the perspective of a doctor-turned-entrepreneur in Brazil. Today, Dr. Bruno Lagoeiro is an executive at Afya, one of the largest medical education groups in Brazil, but he started out as a med student who was interested in solving problems he and his classmates were encountering. After years of experimentation, and guidance from a business mentor, the solution they developed was Whitebook, a mobile app for clinical decision-support that’s used in tens of millions of patient encounters every year in Brazil. Join host Shiv Gaglani as he draws out the details of Dr. Lagoeiro’s amazing journey to improve healthcare in a huge and diverse country that faces delivery challenges in poor and remote communities and a provider workforce being drained by bureaucracy. Despite these hurdles, Dr. Lagoeiro has an optimistic message to share about the power of providers to change healthcare and the promise of AI to allow them to focus more on the human aspects of medicine. Mentioned in this episode: Afya


Being A Problem Solver In A Moment Of Need - Dr. Lewis Nasr, Research Fellow at MD Anderson Cancer Center

Among the key qualities everyone wants in their healthcare providers is a love of learning and desire to serve others. That’s why we at Osmosis are confident Dr. Lewis Nasr will be a great physician and why we chose him to be the first guest in a new series of interviews on Raise the Line we’re calling “Next Gen Journeys.” The series will highlight fresh perspectives on medical education and the future of healthcare offered by students and recent graduates from around the globe. Starting with Dr. Nasr is a natural choice because of the many contributions he's made to Osmosis over the last several years including service in the Osmosis Medical Education Fellowship program and being a key contributor to our Year of the Zebra initiative. In this engaging conversation with host Hillary Acer, Lewis brings the perspective of medical students trying to learn in very challenging circumstances in which their personal safety and access to basic needs can be at risk. “It's another layer of obstacles that you have to get through. This gives international students a resilience and adaptability that they can bring to clinical practice.” Lewis also discusses his interest in hematology-oncology and reflects on entering the field at a time of remarkable clinical and technical advancements. “It's exciting to see cancer go from what is perceived as a death sentence to something manageable. I really hope to be part of the scientific wave of making cancer history.” We have no doubt that he will be, and neither will you after hearing from this thoughtful, compassionate young physician. Mentioned in this episode: https://www.osmosis.org/world https://www.osmosis.org/zebra https://www.mdanderson.org/


The Psychedelic Renaissance Can’t Achieve Its Aims Without Social Workers - Dr. Megan Meyer, University of Maryland School of Social Work

Today’s Raise the Line guest, Dr. Megan Meyer, has a pretty simple message for proponents of psychedelic-assisted therapy (PAT) who are concerned that demand for therapists will outstrip supply in the coming years: don’t overlook the largest group of mental health providers in the nation. “Social workers provide more mental health services than psychologists, psychiatrists and psychiatric nurses combined and we’re embedded everywhere. I don't think the psychedelic renaissance can actually achieve its aims without us,” says Meyer, who is an associate professor at the University of Maryland School of Social Work. Meyers adds that social workers also happened to be well-equipped for PAT because they’re trained to act as guides in helping clients find their own voice and not impose their own perspectives or biases. Getting large numbers trained will require collaboration across disciplines, universities and training institutes such as the project she’s working on with colleagues at the university’s Schools of Pharmacy and Nursing to survey social workers and nurses regarding their current knowledge and training needs related to psychedelics. Join host Michael Carrese for an expansive conversation about the role social workers can play in minimizing the risks and realizing the potential of psychedelics including issues of bias and diversity, community-based models of post-therapy integration and learning from the practices of indigenous societies. Mentioned in this episode: https://www.ssw.umaryland.edu/


A New Medical School Aims to Meet Health Needs in America’s Fastest Growing Region - Dr. Robert Hasty, Dean and Chief Academic Officer at Orlando College of Osteopathic Medicine

There's a relatively small number of people who have had the opportunity to create a medical school from the ground up, which is why today’s Raise the Line guest, Dr. Robert Hasty, is particularly interesting to talk to because he’s had that chance three times. Currently, he is involved in launching one of the nation's newest medical schools, the Orlando College of Osteopathic Medicine, in one of its fastest growing areas, Central Florida. “I think one of the things I've learned is that everything is incredibly connected at a medical school -- the facility, the curriculum, the culture, the clinical rotation partners...it all has to work together, so that's one of the things that we've done.” Hasty and his team have also designed a modern curriculum that’s taking a “lecture-less,” team-based, case-based, systems-based approach that interweaves clinical skills and knowledge of basic science throughout the four years. And on top of all that, given the school’s proximity to Disney World, you can see fireworks every night from campus! Join host Shiv Gaglani for this hopeful look at the cutting-edge of medical education. Mentioned in this episode: https://ocom.org/


Breathing New Life Into Patient Care and Provider Wellness - Dr. Michelle Thompson, Medical Director of the Lifestyle Medicine Institute at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center

If you get nothing else from listening to this memorable episode of Raise the Line, you’ll at least have the chance to do a breathing exercise in real time along with host Shiv Gaglani and his guest, Dr. Michelle Thompson, who is triple board certified in lifestyle, integrative, and osteopathic family medicine. Dr. Thompson has come to rely on a breathing practice for her own daily wellbeing and offers to do it along with all of her patients as well as countless medical students, residents and colleagues. In fact, as a strong advocate for provider wellness, she's created full-day programs for physicians and nurses to learn tools like breathwork for resilience and self-care. “Self-care is not selfish. If we are caring for ourselves, we are more available to others,” she explains. In addition to her role as medical director of the Lifestyle Medicine Institute at the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Thompson is a national force in establishing lifestyle medicine programs in health systems across the country, as nearly 100 organizations have done. Taking it a step further, UPMC is building a new hospital in the city that Thompson says is going to have a “lifestyle village” on the first three floors to facilitate the efforts of community members to choose healthy habits. Join us as we explore the impact lifestyle and mind-body medicine is having on patient care, employee wellness and medical education in Pittsburgh and far beyond in this perspective-shifting conversation. Mentioned in this episode: University of Pittsburgh Medical Center


The Role of New Compounds in Psychedelic Therapy - Ronan Levy, Co-Founder of Field Trip Health and Reunion Neuroscience

As researchers continue to explore therapeutic applications of existing psychedelic drugs such as LSD and psilocybin, there's been a parallel effort to create new compounds that produce the same beneficial effects, but that come without the lengthy protocols and regulatory obstacles attached to those currently criminalized substances. "If you could develop new molecules that were more targeted and shorter acting, you may actually be able to create medicines as potent as the existing ones, but administratively and medically more efficient so we can reach more people," says Ronan Levy, a serial entrepreneur in the space. After a foray into creating a business model for ketamine-assisted therapy, Levy is now looking to support the community of millions of people who are already using psychedelics in various capacities through his Non-Ordinary Therapy Company instead of providing the therapeutic experience directly. “Wherever you're having your psychedelic experiences, that's wonderful. We're there to help you get the maximum impact from your sessions.” Join host Shiv Gaglani for this fascinating conversation about responsibly pushing regulatory boundaries, whether hallucinatory effects are essential to therapeutic benefit, and the rapid pace of change in a field that holds the potential to, as Levy puts it, “displace most forms of mental health care currently provided.” Mentioned in this episode: Non-Ordinary Therapy Company The Ketamine Breakthrough (book)


A Focus on Cost, Quality and Customization in Online Education - Geordie Hyland, President and CEO of the American College of Education

Distance learning continues to grow in popularity with most college students in the U.S. now taking at least some classes online offered by hundreds of brick-and-mortar and exclusively online institutions. We’re going to learn about one of the highest ranked programs in the space today with Geordie Hyland, president and CEO of the American College of Education. One way ACE sets itself apart in a crowded field is that 85% of its students graduate with no debt, which Hyland says is reflective of the school’s mission. “ACE was founded with a key consideration about return on the students' time and financial investment so we have some of the lowest tuition in the nation, but we also provide a fully online, high-quality experience.” Check out this informative conversation with host Derek Apanovitch to learn about ACE’s programs that are tailored to address pressing staffing shortages in healthcare, its data-driven approach to student support, and the collaborative interactions it facilitates among its 10,000 students. "It's fascinating to see students from very different geographic regions be able to share ideas and collaborate," says Hyland. Mentioned in this episode: https://ace.edu/


Wearable Music For Your Body - Dr. David Rabin, Co-Founder and Chief Medical Officer at Apollo Neuroscience

Chronic stress can be at the root of everything from mental health struggles to digestive problems to heart disease. Today on Raise the Line, we’re going to learn about a wearable device made by Apollo Neuroscience that uses gentle vibrations to help the body adjust to stress. “Apollo is based on all the same principles that music is based on. It's wearable music for your body,” explains the company’s co-founder and chief medical officer Dr. David Rabin, a neuroscientist, psychiatrist, health tech entrepreneur and inventor who has been studying the impact of chronic stress in humans for over fifteen years. A close reading of non-Western medical practices led him to realize that, generally speaking, the focus was on reducing the “fight or flight” response and increasing our parasympathetic rest and recovery system. With that in mind, the Apollo device acts on the vagal nervous system with a gentle vibration that delivers safety signals to your skin in the form of low frequency music that you can't really hear, but you can feel. In this revealing conversation with host Shiv Gaglani, you’ll learn more about how and why Apollo works and its connection to Rabin’s interests in psychedelic-assisted therapy, the importance of safety in the provider-patient relationship, and how to effectively blend Western, Eastern and tribal approaches to medicine and healing. Mentioned in this episode: https://apolloneuro.com/


The Art, and Heart, Of Teaching - Dr. Raj Dasgupta, Associate Professor at the Keck School of Medicine of USC

You may have seen today’s guest, Dr. Raj Dasgupta, on Chasing the Cure, The Doctors, CNN or ABC News and if so, you’ll understand why he is an award-winning medical educator and a force in the field. His irrepressible enthusiasm for patient care and teaching pours out in every moment of this fun and illuminating conversation with host Shiv Gaglani. “I really have this desire to make my teaching engaging and educational at the same time. To be a good teacher, you have to change your style with the times and for who your audience is,” Dasgupta says. Beyond his work with students, residents and fellows at the Keck School of Medicine of USC and the many attendees at his USMLE exam prep classes around the world over the past twenty years, Dr. Raj has touched a multitude of others through a series of books published by Elsevier that include the popular Morning Report: Beyond the Pearls and Case Reports: Beyond the Pearls. It’s a wide-ranging discussion -- he is quadruple board certified in pulmonary, critical care, sleep, and internal medicine, after all -- that offers insight on everything from licensing exams to AI to mentorship to battling burnout to the power of a smile. Don’t miss this whirlwind wisdom drop from the kind of teacher you always wish you had. Mentioned in this episode: The Dr. Raj Podcast


A New Medical School Designed For A New Generation - Dr. Ramin Ahmadi, Dean and Chief Academic Officer of the American Canadian School of Medicine

Something as complicated as starting a medical school is bound to include unanticipated obstacles, but few schools can match the roller coaster ride of the American Canadian School of Medicine in the Commonwealth of Dominica which just welcomed its first class of students. Our Raise the Line guest, Dr. Ramin Ahmadi, along with colleagues from Yale and Penn State medical schools, had worked for years to design an innovative curriculum and train faculty for a new medical school in Kazan, Russia. Then came Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. “Because of the war, we had to pull out. That was the end of the project at that point and we were all very sad,” Ahmadi tells host Shiv Gaglani. Tune in to learn how the project was given new life and how Ahmadi and his team are meeting the needs and preferences of modern students with a flipped-classroom, case-based approach to education. You’ll also hear about ACSOM’s different approach to clinical training, new model for residency programs and other innovations. And be sure to stay tuned to hear about his remarkable experiences in global health and human rights, and gain from his insights on how physicians can protect themselves from burnout. Mentioned in this episode: https://www.acsom.edu.dm


The Path Ahead for MDMA-Assisted Therapy - Dr. Michael Mithoefer, Clinical Investigator at MAPS Public Benefit Corporation

Of the many hopeful developments in psychedelic research in recent years, perhaps the most important is that FDA approval of MDMA-assisted therapy for treating post-traumatic stress disorder appears likely within the next year. That prospect is due in no small part to our Raise the Line guest, Dr. Michael Mithoefer, who has spearheaded clinical trials of MDMA-assisted therapy for more than twenty years and is a senior leader at the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies Public Benefit Corporation which has led this groundbreaking research. Although he notes that FDA approval isn’t guaranteed, Mithoefer is contemplating what the practicalities will be of implementing this multi-stage therapy regimen, and he has cause for concern. “I think now the question is going to be, if it's approved, how does it fit into this medical system we have, which I think is quite dysfunctional, especially with mental health. To me, the challenge is going to be not to try to distort the treatment to fit the system,” he tells host Shiv Gaglani. In this enlightening conversation, Shiv and Dr. Mithoefer discuss the need for specialized therapist training, the importance of making the therapy available regardless of ability to pay, and other potential therapeutic uses for MDMA. This is a great opportunity to hear from an important voice about the current and future state of psychedelics as a treatment modality. Mentioned in this episode: https://mapsbcorp.com/


A Data-Driven Approach to Treatment Resistant Mental Health Conditions - Jimmy Qian, Co-Founder and President of Osmind

On this episode of Raise the Line, we’ll introduce you to a relatively new company in the digital health space focused on treatment-resistant mental health patients, which constitute about 30% of people in the US with a mental health diagnosis. Our guest is Jimmy Qian, the co-founder and president of Osmind, who believes mental health practitioners could benefit from a more data-driven approach. “We can't understand the biology of neuropsychiatry unless we get more and more multimodal data and work together as a scientific community to really understand how mental health even works, and that requires rethinking diagnosis and treatments from the ground up using data,” says Qian. As he tells host Shiv Gaglani, Osmind is sharing its data with researchers to help improve scientific understanding of hard-to-treat conditions and has already published two studies with Stanford, including the largest ever real-world analysis of ketamine as a treatment for depression. Check out this informative conversation to learn how Osmind’s platform is also giving patients the opportunity to provide real-time information on how they're doing between visits and helping providers smooth out their workflow. Mentioned in this episode: https://www.osmind.org/


How Empathy Improves the Patient and Provider Experience - Dr. Helen Riess, CEO of Empathetics, Inc.

If you were to name one thing that could simultaneously increase patient satisfaction and reduce provider burnout, would empathy come to mind? Well, based on research published in peer-reviewed journals, it should, as we’ll learn from our Raise the Line guest Dr. Helen Riess, a clinical professor at Harvard Medical School and author of the book, The Empathy Effect. Trained as a psychiatrist, Riess has built a training program based on the neuroscience of emotion that bucks the prevailing wisdom that empathy is an inborn trait that can’t be taught. “I feel your pain is not just a figure of speech. We actually do feel other people's pain and our very survival depends on it,” Riess explains to host Shiv Gaglani. The company Riess founded and leads, Empathetics, has put thousands of clinicians and frontline staff through its e-learning courses with impressive results including major increases in patient experience scores and improvements in staff retention with the longest follow-up case study showing an 82.9% decrease in turnover among participating clinicians. In a nutshell, the training builds perception of emotion and fosters a deeper understanding of what Riess calls ‘the whole person.’ “You know, not just the broken wrist, but what does the broken wrist mean for a sixty-five-year-old woman who is the only caretaker for her grandchild?” Join us for a fascinating look at the neuroscience of empathy and its role in transforming the culture of healthcare. Mentioned in this episode: https://www.empathetics.com/


Capturing Cancer Signals to Aid Early Detection - Dr. Josh Ofman, President of GRAIL

The value of early detection is perhaps greater for cancer than many other diseases because it remains the second leading cause of death worldwide. On this episode of Raise the Line we're going to learn about a new testing approach that leverages genomic technology and machine learning to detect signals circulating in the blood across more than 50 types of cancers -- far beyond the number currently screened for -- and helps physicians target locations for diagnostic evaluation. “We can look at this epigenetic pattern on very specific regions of the DNA and say this is only seen in cancer, and make a call,” says Dr. Josh Ofman, the president of GRAIL, a spinoff of the genomic sequencing company Illumina. “We have an opportunity now to dramatically improve the number of cancers found in the population through early detection. We could reduce the death rate over the next five years by almost forty percent,” he tells host Shiv Gaglani. Tune in to find out who qualifies for the test, what obstacles lie ahead and how GRAIL is working to educate physicians about this potentially powerful new option Mentioned in this episode: https://grail.com/


Science in the Service of Furthering Mental Health - Dr. Joshua Gordon, Director of the National Institute of Mental Health

On this episode of Raise the Line, we have the privilege of hearing from one of the nation's top healthcare leaders, Dr. Joshua Gordon, who is the director of the National Institute of Mental Health. In that role, he oversees an extensive portfolio of basic and clinical research that seeks to transform the understanding and treatment of mental illnesses, paving the way for prevention, recovery and cure. “Our main role is in trying to make sure that good science is conducted in the service of furthering public mental health,” he tells host Shiv Gaglani. One area of NIMH research that gets less attention than breakthrough medicines is how to make it easier for healthcare systems and practices to adopt best practices and proven treatments. This not only helps improve patient outcomes, but Gordon says it is one element in addressing feelings of a lack of effectiveness that contribute to provider burnout. “If we can increase individuals’ efficacy by ensuring that they are trained in evidence-based approaches, and continue to make new treatments available to help those who aren't responding to the old ones, that's one way we can do that.” This is a rare opportunity to hear from a federal agency executive on some of the most pressing and interesting issues in healthcare including the shortage of providers, health equity, social determinants of health, telemedicine and the potential for psychedelics to treat mental health problems. Mentioned in this episode: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/