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Sigma Nutrition Radio

Fitness and Nutrition

Discussions about the science of nutrition, dietetics and health. The podcast that educates through nuanced conversations, exploring evidence and cultivating critical thinking. Hosted by Danny Lennon.

Discussions about the science of nutrition, dietetics and health. The podcast that educates through nuanced conversations, exploring evidence and cultivating critical thinking. Hosted by Danny Lennon.




Discussions about the science of nutrition, dietetics and health. The podcast that educates through nuanced conversations, exploring evidence and cultivating critical thinking. Hosted by Danny Lennon.






#362: Alistair Monteyne – Impact of Mycoprotein & Vegan Diets on Muscle Protein Synthesis

Alistair Monteyne is the lead author on some recent RCTs examining the impact of mycoprotein on muscle protein synthesis. Alistair is currently a PhD student in the Nutritional Physiology Research Group based at the University of Exeter in the UK. He also has a MSc. in Sport and Exercise Nutrition from Loughborough University. Show notes available at


#361: Sarah Berry, PhD – The PREDICT Study, Postprandial Metabolism & Personalised Nutrition

Dr Sarah Berry is a researcher and senior lecturer in nutritional science at King's College London. Her research interests relate to the influence of dietary components on markers of cardiovascular disease risk; with a particular focus on the influence of food and fat structure on postprandial metabolism. Dr. Berry has been the academic leader for more than 30 human nutrition studies in cardio-metabolic health. Her research also focuses on the influence of manipulation of food structure and...


#360: Nick Hiebert – Micronutrients, Anti-nutrients and Non-essential Nutrients

Nick Hiebert writes about nutrition science on his site The Nutrivore, as well as exclusive, comprehnsive posts on his Patreon page. He is the creator of the "Nutrient Density Cheat Sheet", a nutrition ranking tool for hundreds of whole foods. Nick has a deep interest in a host of nutrition science topics, from nutrient density to saturated fat & cardiovascular disease. He does a lot of deep analysis of raw data and has published some independent meta-analyses on his site. Show notes can...


#359: Calorie Confusion - (Mis)Understanding Energy Balance

In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the common misunderstandings and misrepresentations of the energy balance equation, leading to problematic debates over the validity of 'calories in, calories out'. Today's Topic in Focus: Calories In, Calories Out [02:15] "I Have a Question!" [60:17] Quack Asylum [70:20] Random Recommendations [76:20] SHOW NOTES:


#358: Coffee & Health

In this episode Danny and Alan discuss the health impacts of coffee consumption, including long-term protective influence on disease risk, acute impacts, optimal dosages, genetic differences in metabolism and the influence of the bioactive compounds in coffee. Today's Topic in Focus: [01:50] "I Have a Question!" [68:18] Quack Asylum [71:03] Random Recommendations [81:50] Show Notes:


#357: Nicky Keay, MB BChir – Female Athletes: Hormones, Energy Availability & the Menstrual Cycle

Dr. Nicky Keay is a medical doctor (MB BChir, MRCP) with specific training in endocrinology. She has published related to female athlete hormone profiling, energy availability, and relative energy deficiency in sport (RED-S). As a Research Fellow at St Thomas’ Hospital, she was part of the international medical team which developed an anti-doping test for growth hormone. Dr. Keay studied medicine at Cambridge University, gained membership of the Royal College of Physicians, and trained in...


#356: Hana Kahleova, MD, PhD – Plant-based Diets, Meal Timing & Meal Frequency

Dr. Hana Kahleova is the director of clinical research at the Physicians Committee and directs research testing the effect a plant-based diet has on metabolism, insulin function, fitness, and mental health, as well as studying the impact meal timing and meal frequency have on metabolism and body weight. Dr. Kahleova earned her doctorate in nutrition and diabetes and her medical degree from Charles University in Prague, Czech Republic. As a postdoctoral research fellow at Loma Linda...


#355: Is Time-restricted Eating Dead?: A Closer Look

Danny & Alan discuss a recent paper on time-restricted eating that has been inaccurately interpreted by some as a "disproval" of TRE as an intervention. In this episode, the aim is to provide some context to the situation. There are also three listener questions, and another person/claim is brought into the quack asylum! Today's Topic in Focus: Time-Restricted Eating [05:14] "I Have a Question!" [57:27] Quack Asylum [73:35] Random Recommendations [86:05] SHOW NOTES:...


#354: Problems with the Meta-Analysis in Nutrition

Danny & Alan discuss issues with using and interpreting meta-analyses in nutritional science, they answer a question about methods of reheating food, and they highlight a recent paper published by quacks that experts have termed a "deception". Today's Topic in Focus [08:50] "I Have a Question!" [53:35] Quack Asylum [59:32] Something Random [66:42] Show notes:


#353: James Hébert, ScD – Dietary Inflammatory Index

Dr. James Hébert is a nutritional and cancer epidemiologist, currently a distinguished Professor at the University of South Carolina. Dr. Hébert’s professional focus for the past several years has been on developing and refining the Dietary Inflammatory Index™ (DII®), which has now been established as an effective research tool. Dr. Hébert is also a Professor in the Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, a Professor of Epidemiology at the Medical University of South Carolina, a...


#352: Do Diets Even Work in the Long-term? - A Look at Weight Loss Maintenance

Danny and Alan take a look at the evidence on weight loss maintenance, answer a question about ApoE4, and admit another nonsensical claim into the quack asylum. In this episode: [02:56] Today's Topic in Focus: Weight Regain vs Weight Loss Maintenance [58:56] I Have a Question!: "How does the ApoE4 allele affect lipid metabolism? And how should someone structure their diet around having one or both alleles due to it resulting in higher LDL-C than someone without the gene?" [63:09] Quack...


#351: Prof. Glenn Gibson - Human Gut Bacteriology, Prebiotics & Probiotics

Glenn Gibson is Professor of Food Microbiology at University of Reading. He has been researching bacteria in the gut for over 30 years. Together with his colleague Marcel B. Roberfroid, both researchers coined the term prebiotics in their 1995 paper. He has published over 450 research papers and 8 books. He currently researches acute and chronic gut disease, with specific projects on probiotics and prebiotics, gas production, gut microbiota development, gastroenteritis, obsesity and colonic...


#350: Peter Olusoga, PhD & Hugh Gilmore – Coaching Burnout: The Research & Applied Psychology

Dr Peter Olusoga is a Senior Lecturer in Psychology at Sheffield Hallam University. His current research focuses on stress, burnout and wellbeing in sports, with a particular interest in high-performance environments and elite coaching. Peter is a Chartered Psychologist with the British Psychological Society (BPS). Hugh Gilmore is an accredited sport psychologist with experience working in elite sport in the UK. Hugh has worked with elite athletes across a number of sports, including with...


#349: Prof. Naomi Allen – How the UK Biobank is Powering Chronic Disease Research

Professor Naomi Allen was appointed Chief Scientist for UK Biobank in 2019, having joined UK Biobank in November 2011 as Senior Epidemiologist. She is Professor of Epidemiology at the Nuffield Department of Population Health, University of Oxford, with a keen research interest in cancer epidemiology. At UK Biobank she is responsible for following-up participants both through linkage with routine health-related datasets, and through web-based questionnaires. She is also involved in...


#348: Omega-3 Supplementation & Heart Disease

Today's Topic in Focus: Omega-3 Supplementation & Heart Disease [01:52] "I Have a Question!" [66:30]: UK government obesity plan. Quack Asylum [87:00]: Is a gram of PUFA in chicken worse than 250g of sugar from honey? Carnivore cannibalism! Random Recommendations [94:20] SHOW NOTES:


#347: Alex Thomas - Advancing the Sports Nutritionist Profession

Alex Thomas is the founder of Sports Nutrition Association (SNA), which is global association that contains Sports Nutrition Australia, Sports Nutrition NewZealand, Sports Nutrition Asia, and Sports Nutrition USA. Alex is an experienced Clinical Accredited Sports Nutritionist. He is the Australasian Ambassador of the ISSN (International Society of Sports Nutrition). He is co-creator of the Metabolic Health Screen (A health risk and contraindication identification and triage system – now...


#346: Kathryn Bradbury, PhD – Diet & Colorectal Cancer Risk

Dr. Kathryn Bradbury, PhD is a researcher at the University of Auckland, New Zealand. Her research has focused on examining the role of diet in the development of cancer, cardiovascular disease and other non-communicable diseases. Dr. Bradbury spent 5 years in the Cancer Epidemiology Unit at the University of Oxford. There, she worked as a nutritional epidemiologist on large cohort studies, including the European Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), and the UK Biobank. She also...


#345: Rebecca Leech, PhD – Impact of Meal Patterning on Diet Quality & Health

Dr. Rebecca Leech is a Registered Nutritionist and Nutritional Epidemiologist, based at Deakin’s Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition. Rebecca has a PhD in Nutritional Epidemiology, and in 2018, was awarded an Alfred Deakin Medal for her doctoral thesis, which examined adults’ eating patterns and their associations with diet quality and obesity. Her postdoctoral research, extends on this, and applies novel analytic approaches to understand determinants of food intake at eating...


#344: Prof. Martin Caraher – Food Poverty & Food Aid Provision

Prof. Martin Caraher is Emeritus Professor of food and health policy at Centre for Food Policy at City, University of London. He has worked for and acted as a consultant to the UK Department of Health, the World Bank and the World Health Organisation. He was a member of the original London Food Board which developed the food strategy for London. He is a member of the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) scientific committee. He also sits on the Safefood Irl scientific committee. Show...


#343: Understanding Causality in Nutrition Science

Danny & Alan discuss how to understand causality in nutrition research. The episodes includes: inferring causality vs demonstrating causality, the hierarchy of evidence vs. standards of proof, the erroneous application of the biomedical model to nutrition, RCTs vs. epidemiology, what the “highest quality evidence available” is, and how nutritional epidemiology can infer causality. Episode also includes a listener question, random recommendations and the Quack Asylum! Show notes:...