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Cardionerds: A Cardiology Podcast

Health & Wellness Podcasts

Cardionerds is a cardiology podcast created to bring high yield cardiovascular concepts in a fun and engaging format for listeners of all levels. For each topic, we use the consult interaction to discuss the basics after which we take pulse checks with experts for a deeper dive!

Location:

BALTIMORE, MD

Description:

Cardionerds is a cardiology podcast created to bring high yield cardiovascular concepts in a fun and engaging format for listeners of all levels. For each topic, we use the consult interaction to discuss the basics after which we take pulse checks with experts for a deeper dive!

Twitter:

@Cardionerds

Language:

English

Contact:

8458251437


Episodes
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365: CardioOncology: Cardiotoxicity of Novel Immunotherapies with Dr. Tomas Neilan

4/21/2024
Immunotherapy is a type of novel cancer therapy that leverages the body’s own immune system to target cancer cells. In this episode, we focused on the most common type of immunotherapy: immune checkpoint inhibitors or ICIs. ICIs are monoclonal antibodies targeting immune “checkpoints” or brakes to enhance T-cell recognition against tumors. ICI has become a pillar in cancer care, with over 100 approvals and 5,000 ongoing trials. ICIs can lead to non-specific activation of the immune system, causing off-target adverse events such as cardiotoxicities. ICI-related myocarditis, though less common, can be fatal in 30% of cases. Clinical manifestations vary but can include chest pain, dyspnea, palpitations, heart failure symptoms, and arrhythmias. Diagnosis involves echocardiography, cardiac MRI, and endomyocardial biopsy. Treatment includes high-dose corticosteroids with potential additional immunosuppressants. Baseline EKG and troponin are recommended before ICI initiation, but routine surveillance is not advised. Subclinical myocarditis is a challenge, with unclear management implications. So let’s dive in and learn about cardiotoxicity of novel immunotherapies with Drs. Giselle Suero (series co-chair), Evelyn Song (episode FIT lead), Daniel Ambinder (CardioNerds co-founder), and Tomas Neilan (faculty expert). Audio editing by CardioNerds Academy Intern, Dr. Maryam Barkhordarian. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan. CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Cardiotoxicity of Novel Immunotherapies Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICI) play a crucial role in current oncology treatment by enhancing T-cell recognition against tumors. ICI-related cardiac immune-related adverse events (iRAEs) include myocarditis, heart failure, stress-cardiomyopathy, conduction abnormalities, venous thrombosis, pericardial disease, vasculitis, and atherosclerotic-related events. ICI myocarditis can be fatal; thus, prompt recognition and treatment is crucial. Management includes cessation of the ICI and treatment with corticosteroids and potentially other immunosuppressants. Close monitoring and collaboration with cardiology and oncology are crucial. Rechallenging patients with immunotherapies after developing an iRAE is controversial and requires careful consideration of risks and benefits, typically with the involvement of a multidisciplinary team. Show notes - Cardiotoxicity of Novel Immunotherapies What are immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs)? ICIs are monoclonal antibodies used to enhance the body’s immune response against cancer cells. Currently, there are four main classes of FDA-approved ICIs: monoclonal antibodies blocking cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programed cell death protein-1 (PD-1), lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG3), and programmed cell death ligand-1 (PD-L1). ICIs can lead to non-specific activation of the immune system, potentially causing off-target adverse events in various organs, including the heart, leading to myocarditis. The mechanisms of cardiac iRAEs are not fully understood, but they are believed to involve T-cell activation against cardiac antigens, which leads to inflammation and tissue damage. What are the cardiotoxicities related to ICI therapies? ICI-related cardiac immune-related adverse events (iRAEs) include myocarditis, heart failure, stress-cardiomyopathy, conduction abnormalities, venous thrombosis, pericardial disease, vasculitis,

Duration:00:57:10

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364. Case Report: A Drug’s Adverse Effect Unleashes the Wolf – Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center

3/13/2024
CardioNerds join Dr. Inbar Raber and Dr. Susan Mcilvaine from the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center for a Fenway game. They discuss the following case: A 72-year-old man presents with two weeks of progressive dyspnea, orthopnea, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and right upper quadrant pain. He has a history of essential thrombocytosis, Barrett’s esophagus, basal cell skin cancer, and hypertension treated with hydralazine. He is found to have bilateral pleural effusions and a pericardial effusion. He undergoes a work-up, including pericardial cytology, which is negative, and blood tests reveal a positive ANA and positive anti-histone antibody. He is diagnosed with drug-induced lupus due to hydralazine and starts treatment with intravenous steroids, resulting in an improvement in his symptoms. Expert commentary is provided by UT Southwestern internal medicine residency program director Dr. Salahuddin (“Dino”) Kazi. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media Pearls - A Drug's Adverse Effect Unleashes the Wolf The differential diagnosis for pericardial effusion includes metabolic, malignant, medication-induced, traumatic, rheumatologic, and infectious etiologies. While pericardial cytology can aid in securing a diagnosis of cancer in patients with malignant pericardial effusions, the sensitivity of the test is limited at around 50%. Common symptoms of drug-induced lupus include fever, arthralgias, myalgias, rash, and/or serositis. Anti-histone antibodies are typically present in drug-induced lupus, while anti-dsDNA antibodies are typically absent (unlike in systemic lupus erythematosus, SLE). Hydralazine-induced lupus has a prevalence of 5-10%, with a higher risk for patients on higher doses or longer durations of drug exposure. Onset is usually months to years after drug initiation. Show Notes - A Drug's Adverse Effect Unleashes the Wolf There is a broad differential diagnosis for pericardial effusion which includes metabolic, malignant, medication-induced, traumatic, rheumatologic, and infectious etiologies. Metabolic etiologies include renal failure and thyroid disease. Certain malignancies are more likely to cause pericardial effusions, including lung cancer, lymphoma, breast cancer, sarcoma, and melanoma. Radiation therapy to treat chest malignancies can also result in a pericardial effusion. Medications can cause pericardial effusion, including immune checkpoint inhibitors, which can cause myocarditis or pericarditis, and medications associated with drug-induced lupus, such as procainamide, hydralazine, phenytoin, minoxidil, or isoniazid. Trauma can cause pericardial effusions, including blunt chest trauma, cardiac surgery, or cardiac catheterization. Rheumatologic etiologies include lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic sclerosis, sarcoid, and vasculitis. Many different types of infections can cause pericardial effusions, including viruses (e.g., coxsackievirus, echovirus, adenovirus, human immunodeficiency virus, and influenza), bacteria (TB, staphylococcus, streptococcus, and pneumococcus), and fungi. Other must-not-miss etiologies include emergencies like type A aortic dissection and myocardial infarction. In a retrospective study of all patients who presented with a hemodynamically significant pericardial effusion and underwent pericardiocentesis, 33% of patients were found to have an underlying malignancy(Ben-Horin et al). Bloody effusion and frank tamponade were significantly more common among patients with malignant effusion, but the overlap was significant, and no epidemiologic or clinical parameter was found useful to differentiate between cancerous and noncancerous effus...

Duration:00:38:26

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363. GLP-1 Agonists: Diving into the Data with Dr. Darren McGuire

3/11/2024
Welcome back to the CardioNerds Cardiovascular Prevention Series, where we are continuing our discussion of Glucagon-like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists (GLP-1 RAs). This class of medications is becoming a household name, not only for their implications for weight loss but also for their effect on cardiovascular disease. CardioNerds Dr. Ty Sweeney (CardioNerds Academy Faculty Member and incoming Cardiology Fellow at Boston Medical Center), Dr. Rick Ferraro (CardioNerds Academy House Faculty and Cardiology Fellow at Johns Hopkins Hospital), and special guest Dr. Franck Azobou (Cardiology Fellow at UT Southwestern) sat down with Dr. Darren McGuire (Cardiologist at UT Southwestern and Senior Editor of Diabetes and Vascular Disease Research) to discuss important trial data on GLP-1 RAs in patients with heart disease, as well as recent professional society guidelines on their use. Show notes were drafted by Dr. Ty Sweeney. Audio editing was performed by CardioNerds Intern student Dr. Diane Masket. If you haven’t already, be sure to check out CardioNerds episode #350 where we discuss the basics and mechanism of action of GLP-1 RAs with Dr. Dennis Bruemmer. This episode was produced in collaboration with the American Society of Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) with independent medical education grant support from Novo Nordisk. See below for continuing medical education credit. Claim CME for this episode HERE. CardioNerds Prevention PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - GLP-1 Agonists: Diving into the Data Patients with diabetes and clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) or who are at high risk of ASCVD benefit from treatment with a GLP-1 RA. For persons with sufficient ASCVD risk and type 2 diabetes, GLP-1 RAs and SGLT2 inhibitors can, and often should, be used in combination. "Just like we don’t consider ‘and/or’ for the four pillars of guideline-directed medical therapy for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, we shouldn’t parcel out these two therapeutic options...it should be both.” Setting expectations with your patients regarding injection practices, side effects, and expected benefits can go a long way toward improving the patient experience with GLP-1 RAs. Utilize a multidisciplinary approach when caring for patients on GLP-1 RAs. Build a team with your patient’s primary care provider, endocrinologist, clinical pharmacist, and nurse. “This is really a cardiologist issue. These are no longer endocrinology or primary care drugs. We need to be prescribing them ourselves just like we did back in the nineties when we took over the statin prescriptions from the endocrinology domain...we need to lead the way.” Show notes - GLP-1 Agonists: Diving into the Data For which patients are GLP-1 RAs recommended to reduce the risk of major cardiac events? For patients with type 2 diabetes and ASCVD, starting a GLP-1 RA carries a Class 1, Level of Evidence A recommendation in the most recent ESC and ACC guidelines. For patients without diabetes or clinical ASCVD with an estimated 10-year risk of CVD exceeding 10%, consideration of starting a GLP-1 RA carries a Class 2b, Level of Evidence C recommendation to reduce CV risk. The STEP-HFpEF trial showed that among patients with obesity and HFpEF, once-weekly semaglutide may be beneficial in terms of weight loss and quality of life. The results of the FIGHT and LIVE trials question the utility and safety of liraglutide in treating patients with advanced HFrEF. Of the over 17,000 patients enrolled in the SELECT trial, about 25% had heart failure, of which about one-third had HFrEF. Stay tuned for sub-analyses from that trial for more info! Can we still prescribe GLP-1 Ras in patients with well-controlled T2DM?

Duration:00:43:01

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362. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #32 with Dr. Harriette Van Spall

3/10/2024
The following question refers to Section 13 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure.The question is asked by Western Michigan University medical student and CardioNerds Intern Shivani Reddy, answered first by Mayo Clinic Cardiology Fellow and CardioNerds Academy Faculty Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and then by expert faculty Dr. Harriette Van Spall.Dr. Van Spall is an Associate Professor of Medicine, cardiologist, and Director of E-Health at McMaster University. Dr Van Spall is a Canadian Institutes of Health Research-funded clinical trialist and researcher with a focus on heart failure, health services, and health disparities.The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance.Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #32 Palliative and supportive care has a role for patients with heart failure only in the end stages of their disease. TRUE FALSE Answer #32 Explanation The correct answer is False Palliative care is patient- and family-centered care that optimizes health-related quality of life by anticipating, preventing, and treating suffering and should be integrated into the management of all stages of heart failure throughout the course of illness. The wholistic model of palliative care includes high-quality communication, estimation of prognosis, anticipatory guidance, addressing uncertainty, shared decision-making about medically reasonable treatment options, advance care planning; attention to physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological distress; relief of suffering; and inclusion of family caregivers in patient care and attention to their needs during bereavement. As such, for all patients with HF, palliative and supportive care—including high-quality communication, conveyance of prognosis, clarifying goals of care, shared decision-making, symptom management, and caregiver support—should be provided to improve QOL and relieve suffering (Class 1, LOE C-LD). For conveyance of prognosis, objective risk models can be incorporated along with discussion of uncertainty since patients may overestimate survival and the benefits of specific treatments – “hope for the best, plan for the worst.” For clarifying goals of care, the exploration of each patient’s values and concerns through shared decision-making is essential in important management decisions such as when to discontinue treatments, when to initiate palliative treatments that may hasten death but provide symptom management, planning the location of death, and the incorporation of home services or hospice. It is a Class I indication that for patients with HF being considered for, or treated with life-extending therapies, the option for discontinuation should be anticipated and discussed through the continuum of care, including at the time of initiation, and reassessed with changing medical conditions and shifting goals of care (LOE C-LD). Caregiver support should also be offered to family members even beyond death to help them cope with the grieving process. A formal palliative care consult is not needed for each patient, but the primary team should exercise the above domains to improve processes of care and patient outcomes. Specialist palliative care consultation can be useful to improve QOL and relieve suffering for patients with heart failure—particularly tho...

Duration:00:17:10

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361. Case Report: Sore Throat, Fever, and Myocarditis – It’s not always COVID-19! – University of Maryland

3/4/2024
CardioNerds cofounder Dr. Dan Ambinder joins Dr. Angie Molina, Dr. Cullen Soares, and Dr. Andrew Lutz from the University of Maryland Medical Center for some beers and history by Fort McHenry. They discuss a case of disseminated haemophilus influenzapresumed fulminant bacterial myocarditis with mixed septic/cardiogenic shock. Expert commentary is provided by Dr. Stanley Liu (Assistant Professor, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Maryland School of Medicine). Episode audio was edited by Dr. Chelsea Amo-Tweneboah. A woman in her twenties with a history of intravenous drug use presented with acute onset fevers and sore throat, subsequently developed respiratory distress and cardiac arrest, and was noted to have epiglottic edema on intubation. She developed shock and multiorgan failure. ECG showed diffuse ST elevations, TTE revealed biventricular dysfunction, and pleural fluid culture grew Haemophilus influenza. Right heart catheterization showed evidence of cardiogenic shock. She improved with supportive care and antibiotics. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls - Sore Throat, Fever, and Myocarditis - It’s not always COVID-19 The post-cardiac arrest ECG provides helpful information for diagnosing the underlying etiology.​ Be aware of diagnostic biases - availability and anchoring biases are particularly common during respiratory viral (such as COVID-19, RSV) surges. Consider a broad differential diagnosis in evaluating myocarditis, including non-viral etiologies. Right heart catheterization provides crucial information for diagnosis and management of undifferentiated shock​. When assessing the need for mechanical circulatory support, consider the current hemodynamics, type of support needed, and risks associated with each type. Show Notes - Sore Throat, Fever, and Myocarditis - It’s not always COVID-19 ECG findings consistent with pericarditis include diffuse concave-up ST elevations and downsloping T-P segment (Spodick’s sign) as well as PR depression (lead II), and PR elevation (lead aVR). In contrast, regional ST elevations with “reciprocal” ST depressions and/or Q-waves should raise concern for myocardial ischemia as the etiology. Biventricular dysfunction and elevated troponin are commonly seen post-cardiac arrest and may be secondary findings. However, an elevation in troponin that is out of proportion to expected demand ischemia, ECG changes (pericarditis, ischemic ST elevations), and cardiogenic shock suggest a primary cardiac etiology for cardiac arrest. The differential diagnosis of infectious myopericarditis includes, most commonly, viral infection (respiratory viruses) and, more rarely, bacterial, fungal, or parasitic. Noninfectious myopericarditis may be autoimmune (such as lupus, sarcoidosis, checkpoint inhibitors), toxin-induced (alcohol, cocaine), and medication-induced (anthracyclines and others). Right heart catheterization can help diagnose the etiology of undifferentiated shock, including distinguishing between septic and cardiogenic shock, by providing right and left-sided filling pressures, pulmonary and systemic vascular resistance, and cardiac output. Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is indicated for patients in cardiogenic shock with worsening end-organ perfusion despite inotropic and pressor support. MCS includes intra-aortic balloon pump, percutaneous VAD, TandemHeart, and VA-ECMO. The decision to use specific types of MCS should be individualized to each patient with their comorbidities and hemodynamic profile. Shock teams are vital to guide decision-making. References Witting MD, Hu KM, Westreich AA, Tewelde S, Farzad A,

Duration:00:41:33

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360. Obesity: Lifestyle & Pharmacologic Management of Obesity with Dr. Ambarish Pandey

2/19/2024
CardioNerds Dr. Rick Ferraro (CardioNerds Academy House Faculty and Cardiology Fellow at JHH), Dr. Gurleen Kaur (Director of the CardioNerds Internship and Internal Medicine resident at BWH), and Dr. Alli Bigeh (Cardiology Fellow at the Ohio State) as they discuss the growing obesity epidemic and how it relates to cardiovascular disease with Dr. Ambarish Pandey (Cardiologist at UT Southwestern Medical Center). Show notes were drafted by Dr. Alli Bigeh. CardioNerds Academy Intern and student Dr. Shivani Reddy performed audio editing. Obesity is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, and it is on the rise! Here, we discuss how to identify patients with obesity and develop an approach to address current lifestyle recommendations. We also discuss the spectrum of pharmacologic treatment options available, management strategies, and some therapy options that are on the horizon. This episode was produced in collaboration with the American Society of Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) with independent medical education grant support from Novo Nordisk. See below for continuing medical education credit. Claim CME for this episode HERE. CardioNerds Prevention PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Lifestyle & Pharmacologic Management of Obesity Identify obese patients not just using BMI, but also using anthropometric measurements such as waist circumference (central adiposity). Lifestyle modifications are our first line of defense against obesity! Current recommendations emphasize caloric restriction of at least 500kcal/day, plant-based and Mediterranean diets, and getting at least 150 minutes of moderate-intensity weekly exercise. Dive into the root cause of eating and lifestyle behaviors. It is crucial to address adverse social determinants of health with patients to identify the driving behaviors, particularly among those individuals of low socioeconomic status. Newer weight loss agents are most effective at achieving and maintaining substantial weight loss, in particular Semaglutide (GLP-1) and Tirzepatide (GLP-1/GIP). Initiate at a low dose and titrate up slowly. Obesity is a risk factor and potential driver for HFpEF. Targeted treatment options for obese patients with HFpEF include SGLT-2 inhibitors and semaglutide, which recently showed improvement in quality of life and exercise capacity in the STEP-HFpEF trial. Show notes - Lifestyle & Pharmacologic Management of Obesity How do we identify and define obesity? The traditional definition of obesity is based on body mass index (BMI), defined as BMI greater than or equal to 30.0 kg/m2 (weight in kg/height in meters).Recognize that BMI may not tell the whole story. A limitation of BMI is it does not reflect differences in body composition and distribution of fat.Certain patients may not meet the BMI cutoff for obesity but have elevated cardiovascular risk based on increased central adiposity, specifically those that are categorized as overweight.The devil lies in the details of anthropometric parameters. Include waist circumference measurements as part of an obesity assessment of visceral adiposity. A waist circumference greater than 40 inches for men and greater than 35 inches for women is considered elevated. What are some current lifestyle recommendations for obese patients? Lifestyle recommendations are the first line of defense against obesity.Current ACC/AHA guidelines suggest a target of reducing caloric intake by 500 kcal per day. For patients with severe obesity, this number may be higher.Emphasis on hypocaloric plant-based and Mediterranean dietsReduce total carbohydrate intake to 50-130 grams per day.Focus on a low-fat diet with less than 30% of total energy coming from fat with a high-protein diet to main...

Duration:00:35:11

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359. Case Report: Fee-Fi-Fo-Fum: An Unusual Case of Rapidly Progressive Heart Failure – Georgetown University

2/12/2024
CardioNerds join Dr. Ethan Fraser and Dr. Austin Culver from the MedStar Georgetown University Hospital internal medicine and cardiology programs in our nation’s capital. They discuss the following case involving an unusual case of rapidly progressive heart failure. Episode audio was edited by CardioNerds Academy Intern and student Dr. Pacey Wetstein. Expert commentary was provided by advanced heart failure cardiologist Dr. Richa Gupta. A 55-year-old male comes to the clinic (and eventually into the hospital) for what appears to be a straightforward decompensation of his underlying cardiac disease. However, things aren’t as simple as they might appear. In this episode, we will discuss the outpatient workup for non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and discuss the clinical indicators that we as clinicians should be aware of in these sick patients. Furthermore, we will discuss the differential for NICM, the management of patients with this rare disease, and how this disease can mimic other cardiomyopathies. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - Rapidly Progressive Heart Failure Pearls - Rapidly Progressive Heart Failure The non-ischemic cardiomyopathy workup should incorporate targeted multimodal imaging, thorough history taking, broad laboratory testing, genetic testing if suspicion exists for a hereditary cause, and a deep understanding of which populations are at higher risk for certain disease states. Key Point: Always challenge and question the etiology of an unknown cardiomyopathy – do not assume an etiology based on history/patient story alone. Unexplained conduction disease in either a young or middle-aged individual in the setting of a known cardiomyopathy should raise suspicion for an infiltrative cardiomyopathy and set off a referral to an advanced heart failure program. Key Point: Consider early/more aggressive imaging for these patients and early electrophysiology referral for primary/secondary prevention. Giant Cell Myocarditis is a rapidly progressive cardiomyopathy characterized by high mortality (70% in the first year), conduction disease, and classically presents in young/middle-aged men. Key Point: If you have a younger male with rapidly progressive cardiomyopathy (anywhere as quickly as 1-2 months, weeks in some cases) and conduction disease, consider early endomyocardial biopsy, even before other advanced imaging modalities. The Diagnosis of Giant Cell Myocarditis is time-sensitive - early identification and treatment are essential to survival. Key Point: The median timeframe from the time the disease is diagnosed to the time of death is approximately 6 months. 90% of patients are either deceased by the end of 1 year or have received a heart transplant. The treatment of Giant Cell Myocarditis is still governed largely by expert opinion, but the key components include high-dose steroids and cyclosporine, largely as a bridge to transplantation or advanced heart failure therapies. Key Point: Multi-disciplinary care is essential in delivering excellent care in the diagnostic/pre-transplant period, including involvement by cardiology, cardiac surgery, radiology, critical care, allergy/immunology, case management, advanced heart failure, and shock teams if necessary. There remains significant clinical overlap between Giant Cell Myocarditis and sarcoidosis, making managing equivocal cases challenging. Key Point: Consider early FDG-PET imaging in equivocal cases, as management during the pre-transplant period and evaluation of transplant candidacy can vary drastically between the two. Show Notes - Rapidly Progressive Heart Failure 1.

Duration:00:59:23

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358. Guidelines: 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure – Question #31 with Dr. Javed Butler

2/8/2024
The following question refers to Section 9.5 of the 2022 AHA/ACC/HFSA Guideline for the Management of Heart Failure. The question is asked by Keck School of Medicine USC medical student & former CardioNerds Intern Hirsh Elhence, answered first by Vanderbilt Cardiology Fellow and CardioNerds Academy Faculty Dr. Breana Hansen, and then by expert faculty Dr. Javed Butler. Dr. Butler is an advanced heart failure and transplant cardiologist, President of the Baylor Scott and White Research Institute, Senior Vice President for the Baylor Scott and White Health, and Distinguished Professor of Medicine at the University of Mississippi The Decipher the Guidelines: 2022 AHA / ACC / HFSA Guideline for The Management of Heart Failure series was developed by the CardioNerds and created in collaboration with the American Heart Association and the Heart Failure Society of America. It was created by 30 trainees spanning college through advanced fellowship under the leadership of CardioNerds Cofounders Dr. Amit Goyal and Dr. Dan Ambinder, with mentorship from Dr. Anu Lala, Dr. Robert Mentz, and Dr. Nancy Sweitzer. We thank Dr. Judy Bezanson and Dr. Elliott Antman for tremendous guidance. Enjoy this Circulation 2022 Paths to Discovery article to learn about the CardioNerds story, mission, and values. Question #31 Mrs. Hart is a 70-year-old woman who was admitted to the CICU two days ago for signs and symptoms consistent with cardiogenic shock. Since her admission, she has been on maximal diuretics, requiring greater doses of intravenous dobutamine. Unfortunately, her liver and renal function continue to worsen, and urine output is decreasing. A right heart catheterization reveals elevated biventricular filling pressures with a cardiac index of 1.7 L/min/m2 by the Fick method. What is the next best step? A Continue current measures and monitor for improvement B Switch from dobutamine to norepinephrine C Place an intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) D Resume guideline directed medical therapy Answer #31 Explanation The Correct answer is C – Place an intra-aortic balloon pump. This patient is between the SCAI Shock Stages C and D with elevated venous pressures, decreased urine output, and worsening signs of hypoperfusion. She has been started on appropriate therapies, including diuresis and inotropic support. The relevant Class 2a recommendation is that in patients with cardiogenic shock, temporary MCS is reasonable when end-organ function cannot be maintained by pharmacologic means to support cardiac function (LOE B-NR). Thus, the next best step is a form of temporary MCS. IABP is appropriate to help increase coronary perfusion and offload the left ventricle. In fact, for patients who are not rapidly responding to initial shock measures, triage to centers that can provide temporary MCS may be considered to optimize management (Class 2b, LOE C-LD). The guidelines further state that in patients presenting with cardiogenic shock, placement of a pulmonary arterial line may be considered to define hemodynamic subsets and appropriate management strategies (Class 2B, LOE B-NR). And so, if time allows escalation to MCS should be guided by invasively obtained hemodynamic data via PA catheterization. Several observational experiences have associated PA catheterization use with improved outcomes, particularly in conjunction with short-term MCS. Additionally, PA catheterization is useful when there is diagnostic uncertainty as to the cause of hypotension or end-organ dysfunction, particularly when the patient in shock is not responding to empiric initial measures, such as in this patient. There are additional appropriate measures at this time that are more institution-dependent. An institutional shock team would be very helpful here as they often comprise multidisciplinary teams of heart failure and critical care specialists,

Duration:00:12:05

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357. CardioOncology: Cardiac Tumors with Dr. Juan Lopez-Mattei

2/8/2024
CardioNerds co-founder Dr. Dan Ambinder, series chair Dr. Teodora Donisan, and Dr. Sukriti Banthiya discuss cardiac tumors with Dr. Juan Lopez-Mattei, a nationally recognized expert in the fields of cardio-oncology and the director of cardiac imaging at the Lee Health Heart Institute. Here, we explore the topic of cardiac tumors, with a focus on distinguishing between primary and secondary tumors. We delve into the symptoms, diagnostic methods, and treatment options. Show notes were drafted by Dr. Sukriti Banthiya and episode audio was edited by CardioNerds Intern and student Dr. Diane Masket. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan. CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Cardiac Tumors Keep it simple when approaching an intracardiac mass; start with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and use transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) or cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) based on the clinical context. Use TEE when suspecting valvular vegetations or thrombi & CMR for intracavitary cardiac masses. Cardiac tumors can manifest with a variety of symptoms; however, they are more commonly diagnosed as an incidental finding! When faced with the dilemma of selecting the most suitable imaging modality for evaluating a cardiac mass, consider the following hierarchy: begin with TTE as the first choice, followed by CMR. If the patient cannot undergo CMR, the next step is cardiac computed tomography (CT) or Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). TEE is especially useful for the evaluation of small, highly mobile cardiac masses! Imaging cannot substitute a tissue diagnosis of cardiac masses. However, in cases of advanced malignancy, it may not always be necessary. Show notes - Cardiac Tumors Segment One: A big “picture” Approach to Cardiac Tumors Let’s start with an overview of cardiac masses Neoplastic vs non-neoplasticNeoplastic lesions can be further classified into Primary Cardiac Tumors (PCT’s) & Secondary Cardiac Tumor (SCT’s)A majority of PCTs are benign (up to 90%!); however, rarely, they may be malignant. SCTs are more common than PCTs, and, by definition, they are malignant tumors. Now, let’s look at the tools you can use to aid with the diagnosis of cardiac masses… Step 1: Investigate the cardiac mass initially with TTE. Step 2: Collect clues through history-taking & examination.If suspecting valvular vegetations (as in infective endocarditis!) or left atrial appendage thrombus, characterize the mass further with TEE.Consider the possibility of metastatic cardiac tumors in patients with a known malignancy, as they are more common than primary cardiac tumors. In cases where it is uncertain if the mass is a cardiac tumor or thrombus, use CMR to differentiate the two entities. Some findings on TTE that support the presence of a thrombus include left ventricular dysfunction with segmental wall motion abnormalities and/or apical aneurysm as these result in local pockets of stasis (think: Virchow’s triad) Step 3: Put it all together! Think about whether a tissue biopsy will be needed. If yes, determine whether a negative margin or open biopsy will be required. Segment Two: Symptoms, Symptoms, Symptoms! Cardiac tumors may be symptomatic and present in the 3 key ways as outlined below (Think COD 🐟). However, they are more commonly identified as incidental findings! Constitutional symptoms (fever, arthralgias, weight loss,

Duration:00:38:21

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356. 2023 ACC/AHA/ACCP/HRS Atrial Fibrillation Guidelines – Key Takeaways with Dr. José Joglar and Dr. Mina Chung

1/23/2024
CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation Series Co-Chairs Dr. Colin Blumenthal (University of Pennsylvania Cardiology fellow) and Dr. Kelly Arps (Duke University Electrophysiology Fellow) join the 2023 atrial fibrillation guideline writing committee Chair Dr. José Joglar (UT Southwestern) and Vice Chair Dr. Mina Chung (Cleveland Clinic). They review the key takeaways from the 2023 ACC/AHA/ACCP/HRS Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Atrial Fibrillation. Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, student doctor Pace Wetstein. This podcast was developed in collaboration with the American Heart Association. For more on these guidelines, access the AHA Science News AF Guideline landing page. CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron!

Duration:00:55:09

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355. Case Report: Hypertension With a Twist – Mount Sinai Medical Center

1/16/2024
CardioNerds nerd out with Drs. Karishma Rahman (Mount Siani Vascular Medicine fellow), Shu Min Lao (Mount Sinai Rheumatology fellow), and Constantine Troupes (Mount Sinai Vascular Surgery fellow). They discuss the following case: A 20-year-old woman with a history of hypertension (HTN), initially thought to be secondary to a mid-aortic syndrome that resolved after aortic stenting, presents with a re-occurrence of HTN. The case will go through the differential diagnosis of early onset HTN focusing on structural etiologies of HTN, including mid-aortic syndrome and aortitis. We will also discuss the multi-modality imaging used for diagnosis and surveillance, indications and types of procedural intervention, and how to diagnose and treat an underlying inflammatory disorder leading to aortitis. The expert commentary was provided by Dr. Daniella Kadian-Dodov, Associate Professor of Medicine and Vascular Medicine specialist at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. Audo editing was performed by Dr. Chelsea Amo-Tweneboah, CardioNerds Academy Intern and medicine resident at Stony Brook University Hospital. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - Hypertension With a Twist Pearls - Hypertension With a Twist Early onset hypertension (HTN) and lower extremity claudication should raise suspicion for aortic stenosis (including mid-aortic syndrome). Initial evaluation should include arterial duplex ultrasound and cross-sectional imaging such as CT or MR angiogram of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis to assess for arterial stenosis involving the aorta and/or branching vessels. Mid-aortic syndrome can have multiple underlying etiologies. Concentric aortic wall thickening should raise suspicion for an underlying inflammatory disorder. Initial evaluation should include inflammatory markers such as ESR, CRP, and IL-6, but normal values do not exclude underlying aortitis. While Takayasu arteritis is the most common inflammatory disorder associated with mid-aortic syndrome, IgG4-RD should also be a part of the differential diagnosis. IgG subclass panel can detect IgG4-RD with elevated serum IgG4 levels, but some cases can require pathology for diagnosis. Catheter based intervention is a safe and effective treatment of aortic stenosis for both primary aortic stenosis and post-procedural re-stenosis. Multi-modality imaging, including cross-sectional imaging and duplex ultrasound, plays a central role for the diagnosis, management, and post-procedural surveillance of aortic disease. A multi-disciplinary team (as exemplified by the participants of this podcast!) is essential for the management of complex aortopathy cases to optimize clinical outcomes. Show Notes - Hypertension With a Twist 1. Early onset HTN can have multiple etiologies – aortic stenosis (including but not limited to secondary to congenital aortic coarctation and mid–aortic syndrome, as well as in stent re-stenosis if there is a history of aortic stenting), thrombosis, infection, inflammatory/autoimmune disorders, renovascular disease, polycystic kidney disease, and endocrine disorders. 2. Mid-aortic syndrome is characterized by segmental or diffuse narrowing of the abdominal and/or distal descending aorta with involvement of the branches of the proximal abdominal aorta (renal artery, celiac artery, superior mesenteric artery) and represents approximately 0.5 to 2% of all cases of aortic narrowing. Underlying etiologies include genetic syndromes, inflammatory, non-inflammatory, and idiopathic. It is important to have a high suspicion of underlying inflammatory disorders if cross-sectional i...

Duration:00:46:53

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354. Obesity: Obesity & Cardiovascular Disease Risk with Dr. Jaime Almandoz

1/8/2024
CardioNerds Dr. Rick Ferraro (cardiology fellow at Johns Hopkins Hospital) and Dr. Eunice Dugan (cardiology fellow at the Cleveland Clinic) join episode lead Dr. Tiffany Brazile (cardiology fellow at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center and postdoctoral fellow at the Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine) to discuss the impact of obesity on cardiovascular disease risk, differential risk in specific populations, and effective strategies for counseling patients. They are joined by expert Dr. Jaime Almandoz, Medical Director of the Weight Wellness Program and an Associate Professor of Medicine at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. Audio editing was performed by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student Dr. Tina Reddy. This episode was produced in collaboration with the American Society of Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) with independent medical education grant support from Novo Nordisk. See below for continuing medical education credit. Claim CME for this episode HERE. CardioNerds Prevention PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Obesity & Cardiovascular Disease Risk The durability of metabolically healthy obesity (i.e., normal A1c, lipids, LFTs, BMP, normotensive) is limited. Within 5 years, a third of adults with “metabolically healthy” obesity will develop a cardiometabolic complication. The biomechanical and psychosocial complications of obesity are just as important as the cardiometabolic complications. Biomechanical and psychosocial complications, including obstructive sleep apnea, joint pain, and mood disorders also influence cardiovascular disease risk. Weight loss is not always the patient’s goal. Meet patients where they are and understand their challenges, concerns, and long-term goals with respect to their cardiovascular health and obesity. This information provides an opportunity to frame the conversation in a supportive and engaging way that allows for patient education. Body mass index (BMI) is a screening tool for obesity, but is not sufficient for providing individualized care. Obesity management methods that result in rapid weight loss may not be appropriate for all patients. These methods, such as bariatric surgery and GLP1-receptor agonists, require regular monitoring, follow-up, and multidisciplinary care (e.g., nutritionist, exercise physiologist, endocrinologist, cardiologist, psychologist, etc.). Show notes - Obesity & Cardiovascular Disease Risk Is it possible to be healthy at any size? Whether an individual can be healthy at any size depends on the definition of health and its durability.Approximately 10-15% of adults with obesity are metabolically healthy.The risk for developing cardiometabolic disease is higher in obese versus non-obese adults. One in three adults with metabolically healthy obesity will develop cardiometabolic complications (i.e., insulin resistance/diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension) within five years. Thus, metabolically healthy obesity may represent a transient phenotype with adverse long-term consequences. Consider non-metabolic health consequences of obesity that also influence cardiovascular disease risk. Obstructive sleep apnea, joint pain leading to decreased physical activity, and mood disorders are key considerations here and encompass the biomechanical and psychosocial consequences of obesity. Does large, rapid weight loss result in poorer long-term weight loss than slower, gradual weight loss? When approaches to weight loss are not sustainable, such as extremely low-calorie diets or extreme fitness regimens, the results and associated health benefits are less likely to be durable. Rapid, large-magnitude weight loss is appropriate for some adults with obesity and can be achieved throug...

Duration:00:30:34

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353. Atrial Fibrillation: Anticoagulation Pharmacology & Clinical Decision-Making with Dr. Ashley Lochman and Dr. Chris Domenico

12/28/2023
CardioNerds co-founder Dr. Amit Goyal, series co-chair Dr. Colin Blumenthal, and episode lead Dr. Anushka Tandon to discuss pharmacologic anticoagulation options in atrial fibrillation with Drs. Ashley Lochman and Chris Domenico. The case-based review helps clarify some key concepts, such as when warfarin is preferred for anticoagulation, who may be a good DOAC (direct-acting oral anticoagulant) candidate, how to choose an appropriate DOAC agent, and how to manage anticoagulation therapy in patients already on antiplatelet therapies. Notes were drafted by Dr. Anushka Tandon. The episode audio was edited by student Dr. Shivani Reddy. This CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Kelly Arps and Dr. Colin Blumenthal. This episode was planned and recorded prior to the release of the 2023 ACC/AHA/ACCP/HRS Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Atrial Fibrillation. Please refer to this guideline document for the most updated recommendations. We have collaborated with VCU Health to provide CME. Claim free CME here! CardioNerds Atrial Fibrillation PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Anticoagulation Pharmacology Avoid potentially fatal errors with this terminology tip for correctly referencing non-warfarin oral anticoagulant agents: it’s DOAC (like, please DO use AntiCoagulation), not NOAC (imagine someone interpreting that as “NO AntiCoagulation for this patient” at discharge – yikes)! Sometimes, an oldie really is a goodie – warfarin is recommended over DOACs for patients with mechanical heart valves, moderate-to-severe mitral stenosis, anti-phospholipid antibody syndrome (APLS), left ventricular (LV) thrombus, higher INR goals, or DOAC failure. Patient preference and medication costs should also be considered – at the end of the day, “the best drug is the drug that a patient is willing to take!” Standard-dose rivaroxaban or apixaban may be considered for use in patients weighing >120kg or with BMI >40; use of other DOACs should be limited to pts weighing =/< 120kg or with BMI =/< 40. The pharmacists involved in this podcast promise they don’t have stock in apixaban! It just often happens to be the preferred DOAC option in certain scenarios – think patients with severe renal impairment (including ESRD) or with an increased risk for bleeding events (including older adults, those with a history of GI bleed, etc). In general, dual therapy (DOAC or warfarin + P2Y12 inhibitor) is non-inferior to triple therapy (oral anticoagulant + P2Y12 inhibitor + aspirin) at preventing thrombotic events but is associated with a lower risk of bleeding events. Most patients can be transitioned to dual therapy after 7-30 days on triple therapy post-percutaneous coronary intervention. What’s that on the horizon? Factor XI inhibitors may become the breakout stars of anticoagulation – multiple investigational agents are being studied for their potential to reduce thrombotic risk without significantly increasing bleeding risk in patients with indications for anticoagulation therapy…at least that’s the theorize hope. Watch this space! Notes - Anticoagulation Pharmacology In which cases is warfarin preferred over DOACs in patients with atrial fibrillation? Long-term anticoagulation with warfarin is indicated in patients with atrial fibrillation and either a mechanical valve or moderate-to-severe mitral stenosis (i.e., valvular atrial fibrillation as defined in the 2019 AHA/ACC/HRS guidelines on atrial fibrillation [1]). The REALIGN trial [2] showed increased rates of thromboembolic and bleeding complications with dabigatran vs.

Duration:01:03:21

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352. Case Report: The Culprit in the Pillbox – University of Kansas

12/26/2023
CardioNerds (Dr. Amit Goyal) join Dr. Anureet Malhotra, Dr. John Fritzlen, and Dr. Tarun Dalia from the University of Kansas School of Medicine for some of Kansas City’s famous barbeque. They discuss a case of Hydroxychloroquine induced cardiomyopathy. Notes were drafted by Dr. Anureet Malhotra, Dr. John Fritzlen, and Dr. Tarun Dalia. Expert commentary was provided by Dr. Pradeep Mammen. The episode audio was edited by Dr. Akiva Rosenzveig. Drug-induced cardiomyopathy remains an important and under-recognized etiology of cardiomyopathy and heart failure. Hydroxychloroquine is a disease-modifying antirheumatic drug used for various rheumatological conditions, and its long-term use is well-known to have toxic effects on cardiac muscle cells. Multiple cardiac manifestations of these drugs have been identified, the most prominent being electrophysiological disturbances. In this episode, we discuss a biopsy-proven case of hydroxychloroquine-induced cardiotoxicity with detailed histopathological and imaging findings. We develop a roadmap for the diagnosis of hydroxychloroquine-induced cardiomyopathy and discuss the various differentials of drug-induced cardiomyopathy. We highlight the importance of clinical monitoring and early consideration of drug-induced toxicities as a culprit for heart failure. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - Hydroxychloroquine induced cardiomyopathy Pearls - Hydroxychloroquine induced cardiomyopathy Continued decline in left ventricular systolic function despite appropriate guideline directed medical therapy should prompt a thorough evaluation for unrecognized etiologies and warrants an early referral to advanced heart failure specialists. Transthoracic echocardiogram is a valuable non-invasive screening tool for suspected pulmonary hypertension, but right heart catheterization is required for definitive diagnosis. Cardiac MRI can be used for better characterization of myocardial tissue and can aid in the evaluation of patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is a commonly used DMARD that remains an underrecognized etiology of cardiomyopathy and heart failure. In addition to ophthalmological screening, annual ECG, as well as echocardiography screening for patients on long-term HCQ therapy, should be considered in patients at risk for cardiovascular toxicity, including those with pre-existing cardiovascular disease, older age, female sex, longer duration of therapy, and renal impairment. Management of hydroxychloroquine-associated cardiomyopathy consists of discontinuing hydroxychloroquine and standard guideline-directed medical therapy for heart failure. HCQ cardiomyopathy may persist despite medical therapy, and advanced therapy options may have to be considered in those with refractory heart failure. Show Notes - Hydroxychloroquine induced cardiomyopathy What are the various cardiotoxic effects of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and the mechanism of HCQ-mediated cardiomyopathy? One of the most frequently prescribed disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs), HCQ is an immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory agent that remains an integral part of treatment for a myriad of rheumatological conditions. Its efficacy is linked to inhibiting lysosomal antigen processing, MHC-II antigen presentation, and TLR functions.8 The known cardiac manifestations of HCQ-induced toxicity include conduction abnormalities, ventricular hypertrophy, hypokinesia, and lastly, cardiomyopathy. Conduction Abnormalities - by binding to and inhibiting the human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) voltage-gated potassium channel,

Duration:00:23:45

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351. Case Report: The Tall Tail Heart: Angioleiomyoma – The Christ Hospital

12/20/2023
CardioNerds meet with fellows from The Christ Hospital, Drs. Hanad Bashir, Hyunsoo Chung, and Dalia Aziz to discuss the following case that highlights angioleiomyoma: A 60-year-old woman with a past medical history significant for breast cancer (on tamoxifen) presented as a transfer to our facility for a clot-in-transit. She had initially presented to the outside hospital after progressive dyspnea on exertion and recent syncope. She was found on an echocardiogram to have a right atrial mass spanning into the right ventricle. CTA of the chest and abdomen/pelvis demonstrated extensive thrombus burden spanning from the IVC into the right ventricle. She was transferred to our facility for intervention. Endovascular attempts were unsuccessful, at which point she underwent surgical thrombectomy. Gross examination of the mass revealed a cylindrical shape, homogeneous tan color, rubbery soft tissue, measuring 25.5 cm in length and 2.3 cm in diameter. Histology confirmed the presence of angioleiomyoma. A second, smaller mass (5.2cm long and 4mm in diameter) was removed from under the tricuspid valve, with histology consistent with leiomyoma. Estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor staining were strongly positive, leading to the discontinuation of tamoxifen. Given the presence of uterine fibroids identified on the CT scan, there was concern about a uterine origin. A hysterectomy is planned for her in the near future. Expert commentary is provided by Dr. Wojciech Mazur. Episode audio was edited by student Dr. Adriana Mares. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - The Tall Tail Heart: Angioleiomyoma – The Christ Hospital Pearls - The Tall Tail Heart: Angioleiomyoma – The Christ Hospital Although evaluation of cardiac mass by echocardiography can provide information such as size, location, and morphology, adjunctive cross-sectional imaging may be used depending on the need for further temporal resolution (CT) or tissue characterization via cardiac MRI (CMR). If suspicious for elevated metabolic activity, there should be consideration of FDG-PET. Tamoxifen (a selective estrogen receptor modulator) is an agent used for breast cancer therapy. However, its use has been associated with endometrial hyperplasia, uterine fibroids, endometrial and uterine malignancy. Increased risk of malignancy has been seen more often in post-menopausal women and is dose and time-dependent. Clot in transient is a mobile thrombus, typically within the right heart structures. It is estimated to occur in 4-18% of patients with pulmonary embolism and is associated with elevated morbidity and mortality. Treatment includes surgical embolectomy, endovascular embolectomy, systemic thrombolysis, catheter-directed thrombolysis, or systemic anticoagulation. Angioleiomyoma is a rare benign pericystic tumor that most commonly affects the extremities. There are case reports of other affected sites, including the uterus. Invasion into the cardiac structures is exceedingly rare. The only established treatment for angioleiomyoma is surgical resection. Show Notes - The Tall Tail Heart: Angioleiomyoma – The Christ Hospital Syncope Syncope is a transient loss of consciousness secondary to reduced blood flow to the brain. Often, certain presentations are mislabeled as syncope, such as seizure disorders, posttraumatic loss of consciousness, and cataplexy. An organized diagnostic approach should be used to reduce hospital admissions and medical costs and increase diagnostic accuracy. Syncope can be divided into five general subgroups. 1) Neurally mediated reflex syncope (carotid sinus syndro...

Duration:00:37:25

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350. GLP-1 Agonists: Mechanisms to Applications with Dr. Dennis Bruemmer

12/19/2023
Calling all those with a passion for cardiovascular prevention! In this episode of the CardioNerds Cardiovascular Prevention Series, we take a deep dive into the world of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists. Along the way, you’ll hear about the biology of the GLP-1 molecule and its related peptides, learn more about how GLP-1 agonists promote glycemic control, weight loss, and cardiometabolic health, and explore the current body of literature supporting the individualized application of these medications to patients with diabetes, obesity, and/or ASCVD. Join Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen (CardioNerds Academy Fellow and Internal Medicine Resident at MGH), Dr. Gurleen Kaur (Director of the CardioNerds Internship, Chief of House Einthoven, and Internal Medicine resident at BWH), and Dr. Rick Ferraro (CardioNerds Academy House Faculty and Cardiology Fellow at JHH) for a wide-ranging discussion on GLP-1 and GIP agonists with Dr. Dennis Bruemmer (Cardiologist and Director of the Center for Cardiometabolic Health in the section of Preventive Cardiology at the Cleveland Clinic). Show notes were drafted by Dr. Christian Faaborg-Andersen. Audio editing was performed by CardioNerds Academy Intern, student Dr. Tina Reddy. This episode was produced in collaboration with the American Society of Preventive Cardiology (ASPC) with independent medical education grant support from Novo Nordisk. See below for continuing medical education credit. Claim CME for this episode HERE. CardioNerds Prevention PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - GLP-1 Agonists: Mechanisms to Applications The selection and dosing of GLP-1 and GIP agonists (GLP-1s and GIPs) depends on their intended use as an anti-glycemic or anti-obesity agent. The cardiovascular benefits of GLP-1s and GIPs may be independent of improvements in glycemic control, and in part be driven by reduction in inflammation, a key driver of arterial plaque formation. In patients with comorbid coronary artery disease, obesity, and diabetes, GLP-1 agonists and SGLT-2 inhibitors should be used as first-line agents, over metformin. Tirzepatide is a dual agonist that activates GIP and GLP-1 receptors. GIP is highly expressed in the brain, which may mediate satiety, promote energy expenditure, and enhance peripheral glucose metabolism. Caution should be used with GLP-1 agonists in patients with long-standing diabetes complicated by gastroparesis, as well as incompletely treated diabetic retinopathy. GI upset is not uncommon with GLP-1/GIP agonists, and switching to a different agonist is unlikely to help. Show notes - GLP-1 Agonists: Mechanisms to Applications What are the mechanisms of action by which GLP-1 and GIP controls blood sugar and body weight? Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an endogenous hormone that is secreted in response to an oral glucose load. It promotes insulin release, inhibits glucagon secretion, and slows gastric emptying via the brain-intestine axis, leading to satiety. GLP-1 agonists are medications that mimic the effect of this hormone and, on average, lower hemoglobin A1C by 0.8% to 1.5%. These medications include semaglutide, liraglutide, and dulaglutide. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is also an endogenous hormone, similarly secreted by the body in response to an oral glucose load such as a meal. GIP is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus and hypothalamus, which may mediate satiety, promote energy expenditure, and enhance peripheral glucose metabolism. Tirzepatide is a dual GLP-1/GIP agonist. What is the role of GLP-1/GIP agonists in patients with overweight/obesity and/or type 2 diabetes? How does the dosing of GLP-1/GIP medications change with their intended disease target?

Duration:00:43:40

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349. Case Report: Into the Thick of It – An Unusual Cause of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy – Cleveland Clinic

12/17/2023
CardioNerds cofounder Dr. Amit Goyal and cardiology fellows from the Cleveland Clinic (Drs. Alejandro Duran Crane, Gary Parizher, and Simrat Kaur) discuss the following case: A 61-year-old man presented with symptoms of heart failure and left ventricular hypertrophy. He was given a diagnosis of obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. He eventually underwent septal myectomy, mitral valve replacement, aortic aneurysm repair, and aortic valve replacement with findings of Fabry’s disease on surgical pathology. The case discussion focuses on the differential diagnosis for LVH and covers Fabry disease as an HCM mimic. Expert commentary was provided by Dr. Angelika Ewrin. The episode audio was edited by student Dr. Diane Masket. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - An Unusual Cause of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy – Cleveland Clinic Pearls - An Unusual Cause of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy – Cleveland Clinic Left ventricular hypertrophy is a cardiac manifestation of several different systemic and cardiac processes, and its etiology should be clarified to avoid missed diagnosis and treatment opportunities. Fabry disease is a rare, X-linked inherited disease that can present cardiac and extra-cardiac manifestations, the former of which include hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, conduction defects, coronary artery disease, conduction abnormalities, arrhythmias, and heart failure. The diagnosis of Fabry disease includes measurement of alpha-galactosidase enzyme activity as well as genetic testing to evaluate for pathogenic variants or variants of unknown significance in the GLA gene. Family members of patients diagnosed with Fabry disease should be screened based on the inheritance pattern. Multimodality imaging can be helpful in the diagnosis of Fabry disease. Echocardiography can show left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), reduced global strain, aortic and mitral valve thickening, and aortic root dilation with associated mild to moderate aortic regurgitation. Cardiac MRI can show hypertrophy of papillary muscles, mid-wall late gadolinium enhancement and low-native T1 signal. The treatment of Fabry disease involves a multi-disciplinary approach with geneticists, nephrologists, cardiologists, nephrologists, and primary care doctors. Enzyme replacement therapy can delay the progression of cardiac disease. Show Notes - An Unusual Cause of Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy – Cleveland Clinic What are the causes of left ventricular hypertrophy? LVH is extremely common. It is present in 15-20% of the general population, and is more common in Black individuals, the elderly, obese or hypertensive individuals, with most cases being secondary to hypertension and aortic valve stenosis. In general terms, it is helpful to divide the causes of LVH into three main groups: high afterload states, obstruction to LV ejection, and intrinsic myocardial problems. Increased afterload states include both primary and secondary hypertension and renal artery stenosis. Mechanical obstruction includes aortic stenosis, subaortic stenosis, and coarctation of the aorta. Lastly, several intrinsic problems of the myocardium can cause LV hypertrophy, such as athletic heart with physiological LVH, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with or without outflow obstruction, and infiltrative or storage diseases such as cardiac amyloidosis, Fabry’s disease, or Danon disease, among others. How does Fabry disease present? Fabry disease is present in all races and is an X-linked lysosomal storage disorder caused by pathogenic variants in the GLA gene that result in reduced alpha-galactosidase enzyme activity,

Duration:00:50:05

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348. Case Report: An Interesting Intersection of Cardiology and Hematology/Oncology – Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital

12/7/2023
CardioNerds (Daniel Ambinder) joins Dr. Priyanka Ghosh and Dr. Ahmad Lone from the Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital for a day in the Finger Lakes region of New York. They discuss the following case. A 35-year-old man with nonspecific symptoms of headache, fatigue, and chest wall pain was found to have elevated troponin levels, elevated inflammatory markers, EKG with inferior and anterolateral ST depressions, and no obstructive coronary artery disease on cardiac catheterization. His peripheral eosinophilia, cardiac MRI results, and bone marrow biopsy revealed eosinophilic myocarditis from acute leukemia with eosinophilia. This episode discusses this rare type of myocardial inflammation, its potential causes, and the diagnostic workup with the mention of how this patient was ultimately treated for his acute leukemia and myocarditis. Expert commentary is provided by Dr. Saurabh Sharma. Audio editing by CardioNerds academy intern, student doctor Pace Wetstein. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital Pearls - Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital Myocarditis, especially eosinophilic myocarditis, requires a high level of clinical suspicion. Eosinophilic myocarditis should be considered in a patient presenting with chest pain, normal coronary arteries, and pronounced eosinophilia levels. Causes of eosinophilic myocarditis can vary, and diagnosis requires a thorough, detailed history, which cannot be determined many times. Treatment of eosinophilic myocarditis focuses on the underlying etiology, acute management, and therapy for concomitant heart failure or cardiomyopathy. Consider the whole-patient and cardiac manifestations of non-cardiac illnesses. Show Notes - Guthrie Robert Packer Hospital What is eosinophilic myocarditis? Eosinophilic myocarditis is a type of myocardial inflammation involving eosinophilic cell infiltration and an entity that is likely under-recognized. It requires a high level of suspicion as, many times, patients may not initially present with peripheral eosinophilia, which may develop over the course of their disease process. The presentation can vary from mild cardiac injury to fulminant cardiogenic shock depending on the degree of infiltration and concurrent other organ involvement. The presentation can include heart failure symptoms as well as electrical conduction abnormalities. How is eosinophilic myocarditis diagnosed? Eosinophilic myocarditis is diagnosed by a thorough history including new medications, exposures, travel, prior allergy history, physical exam, lab work including a complete blood count differential, inflammatory markers, cardiac biomarkers, and cardiac diagnostics which should include a 12-lead ECG and transthoracic echocardiogram as well as potentially cardiac MRI and/or endomyocardial biopsy. What are the causes of eosinophilic myocarditis? The causes of eosinophilic myocarditis include medication-induced, hypersensitivity reactions, infections, malignancy, and immune-mediated disorders such as eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis and hypereosinophilic syndromes. The hypersensitivity subtype has been reported to be the most common cause. Potential offending medications can include antibiotics, sulfonamides, anticonvulsants, anti-inflammatory medications, and diuretics. What is the treatment for eosinophilic myocarditis? Treatment for eosinophilic myocarditis is multi-faceted, including focusing on the etiology and withdrawal of any potential offending agents, management of the acute clinical presentation, and treatment of any concomitant heart failure or cardiomyopathy.

Duration:00:31:47

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347. Case Report: Heartmate 3 with a Side of Mustard – Medical University of South Carolina

11/30/2023
CardioNerds (Dr. Josh Saef and Dr. Sumeet Vaikunth) join Dr. Sheng Fu, Dr. Payton Kendsersky, and Dr. Aniqa Shahrier from the Medical University of South Carolina for some off-shore fishing. They discuss the following featuring a patient with D-TGA and Eisenmenger’s syndrome treated with a Heartmate 3. Expert commentary was provided by Dr. Brian Houston. The episode audio was edited by student Dr. Adriana Mares. A 39-year-old woman with a history of D-transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) with prior atrial switch repair (Mustard) was admitted from the clinic with cardiogenic shock. She underwent right heart catheterization which demonstrated elevated biventricular filling pressures and low cardiac index. An intra-aortic balloon pump was placed, and the patient was evaluated for advanced therapies. A liver biopsy showed grade 3 fibrosis, which, in combination with her shock state, made her a high-risk candidate for isolated heart or combined heart-liver transplantation. After a multi-disciplinary discussion, the patient underwent a Heartmate III left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implant in her systemic right ventricle. Although she did well post-operatively, she was admitted after a month with recurrent cardiogenic shock, with imaging showing her inflow cannula had become perpendicular to the septum. The patient and family eventually decided to pursue comfort measures, and the patient passed. US Cardiology Review is now the official journal of CardioNerds! Submit your manuscript here. CardioNerds Case Reports PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Case Media - D-TGA and Eisenmenger’s syndrome treated with a Heartmate 3 Pearls - D-TGA and Eisenmenger’s syndrome treated with a Heartmate 3 Early diagnosis of cyanotic congenital heart disease is paramount for treatment and prevention of future complications. Adult congenital heart disease requires a multi-disciplinary team for management in consultation with an adult congenital cardiology specialist. Eisenmenger syndrome is related to multiple systemic complications and has a high rate of mortality. Advancement in PAH medical management can offer noninvasive treatment options for some patients. Transthoracic echocardiography is the cornerstone for diagnosis. Other modalities (e.g. cardiac CT, cardiac MRI, invasive catheterization) can aid in diagnosis and management. Pearls - D-TGA and Eisenmenger’s syndrome treated with a Heartmate 3 While advances in pediatric surgery have allowed many patients born with congenital heart disease to survive into adulthood, adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) patients are complex and prone to numerous adverse sequalae including arrhythmias, heart failure, valvular disease, and non-cardiac organ dysfunction. Heart failure can be a challenging presentation in ACHD patients due to a longstanding history of clinical compensation. Their unique and complex anatomy, as well as highly variable clinical presentation, present unique challenges when it comes to advanced heart failure options such as durable left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) or transplantation. While durable LVAD implantation is possible in patients with systemic right ventricles, anatomic compatibility is paramount and poses ongoing challenges in their management. Goals of care discussions should be had early, as options for treatment may be limited. Show Notes - D-TGA and Eisenmenger’s syndrome treated with a Heartmate 3 What are some common sequelae in ACHD patients? ACHD patients are a heterogeneous population, but atrial tachycardias are extremely frequent in this patient population, often due to re-entrant pathways around surgical suture lines. These can often be treated with radiofrequency ablation while paying clos...

Duration:01:08:44

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346. CardioOncology: Disparities in CardioOncology – Towards Health Equity with Dr. Javier Gomez-Valencia

11/26/2023
CardioNerds co-founder Dr. Dan Ambinder, series chair Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, and episode FIT Lead Dr. Rachel Ohman discuss disparities in cardiooncology with Dr. Javier Gomez Valencia, the Director of Cardio-Oncology services at John H. Stronger Jr. Hospital of Cook County. Dr. Rachel Ohman drafted show notes. Audio editing by student doctor Shivani Reddy. A disproportionate burden of both cancer and cardiovascular disease affects racial and ethnic minority groups as well as lower-income communities. Similar patterns of vulnerability exist among cancer survivors with cardiovascular disease, although further investigation in these subpopulations is needed. We discuss a comprehensive approach to the cardio-oncology patient, our current understanding of the social and structural determinants of disparities in cardio-oncology populations, and other contributions to inequity in the field. Given the growing population of cancer survivors and limited accessibility to cardio-oncology specialists, these topics are of critical importance to anyone caring for cancer patients who have or are at risk for cardiovascular disease. This episode is supported by a grant from Pfizer Inc. This CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology series is a multi-institutional collaboration made possible by contributions of stellar fellow leads and expert faculty from several programs, led by series co-chairs, Dr. Giselle Suero Abreu, Dr. Dinu Balanescu, and Dr. Teodora Donisan. CardioNerds Cardio-Oncology PageCardioNerds Episode PageCardioNerds AcademyCardionerds Healy Honor Roll CardioNerds Journal ClubSubscribe to The Heartbeat Newsletter!Check out CardioNerds SWAG!Become a CardioNerds Patron! Pearls and Quotes - Disparities in CardioOncology Social and structural determinants of health are drivers of cardiovascular and cancer disparities. Existing data on cardiotoxicity outcomes suggests these determinants also contribute to disparities in cardio-oncology. Assessing social and structural determinants of health should be a routine part of evaluating a patient with an active or prior history of cancer. Customs, country of origin, and immigration status matter. Differential risk profiles among Hispanic/Latinx sub-populations require further investigation. Black patients, particularly black women with breast cancer, have elevated morbidity and mortality from cardiotoxicity. Data suggest contributions from social determinants of health. Representation in clinical trials must be diversified for applicability to our diverse patient populations. Concerted efforts should be made to recruit diverse clinical trial participants and help patients from diverse communities effectively participate in the research process, contributing to the advancement of science. Show notes - Disparities in CardioOncology How do you approach the evaluation of a new patient in cardio-oncology? How do social and structural determinants of health impact treatment-associated cardiotoxicity? The evaluation of a new patient should include an assessment of a patient’s intrinsic risk factors, risks associated with cancer treatment, and consideration of cardioprotective therapeutic strategies Social and structural vulnerabilities should also be assessed routinely as a part of risk stratification. Providers should take stock of a patient’s demographic (e.g., race/ethnicity, gender), socioeconomic (e.g., occupation, insurance status, food security, housing security), environmental (e.g., transportation, proximity to health resources, neighborhood safety), and sociocultural (e.g., psychosocial stressors, discrimination, acculturation) determinants that are in turn modulated by larger systemic forces like structural racism. This comprehensive risk assessment can guide the strategies to mitigate cardiovascular risk before, during, and after cancer treatment. What barriers to cardio-oncology care are unique to the Hispanic/Latinx popula...

Duration:00:34:09