How good are you at identifying a contrariety? Did you know that the vast majority of your mistakes are due to this failure? In logic, contrariety or contrariness refers to contrary propositions. Contradiction and contrariety are often confused and used interchangeably, but this distinction is useful in everyday life.
The philosopher C. D. Broad (1887-1971) famously said that "induction is the glory of science and the scandal of philosophy." This article briefly explores induction as the scandal of "science," and its implications for counseling.
Analytic logic is a class of logic that differs from mathematical logic. With few exceptions, most modern logic is mathematical logic, and is often referred to as classical logic, first-order logic, and so on. Mathematical logic has numerous shortcomings that are known widely. For an extensive presentation of these shortcomings, see Angell (2002).