Dr. Chapa’s Clinical Pearls.-logo

Dr. Chapa’s Clinical Pearls.

Anchor FM

Relevant, evidence based, and practical information for medical students, residents, and practicing healthcare providers regarding all things women’s healthcare! This podcast is intended to be clinically relevant, engaging, and FUN, because medical education should NOT be boring! Welcome...to Clinical Pearls.

Location:

United States

Networks:

Anchor FM

Description:

Relevant, evidence based, and practical information for medical students, residents, and practicing healthcare providers regarding all things women’s healthcare! This podcast is intended to be clinically relevant, engaging, and FUN, because medical education should NOT be boring! Welcome...to Clinical Pearls.

Language:

English


Episodes

Stage 1 HTN in OB

2/24/2024
February 2024 has seen its share of medical and mainstream media stories highlighting hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. While some of this can be considered “old news”, there is “new news” and new developments on the horizon. We have covered hypertensive disorders in pregnancy on several past episodes; however, in this episode, we are going to pick up where we left off and review what the current state of understanding is for AHA/ACC Stage 1 hypertension in pregnancy. Does stage I hypertension in pregnancy require medication? What about antepartum fetal surveillance? What are these patients at risk for? Listen in as we simplify the latest data and summarize the latest evidence regarding serum biomarkers for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.

Duration:00:35:54

New Developments in HG 🤢🤮🤢

2/23/2024
Hyperemesis Gravidarum (HG) has a reported incidence of approximately 0.3–3% of pregnancies. Without prompt recognition and treatment, severe maternal dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities, cardiac arrhythmias, and potentially altered fetal neurodevelopment may result. Recently, HG made medical and general media news as new data has pinpointed 2 likely culprits of its origin- and neither one is estrogen. In this episode, we will discuss these 2 protein markers, and how researchers are looking to develop a genetic test for patients to predict HG. We will also summarize a new publication from Obstetrics & Gynecology (which was published on February 1, 2024) as an ACOG Clinical Expert Series on the inpatient management of HG.

Duration:00:44:59

Fetal Manual Rotation: 1st or 2nd Stage Practice?

2/20/2024
Women whose fetuses are in the occiput posterior head position at the time of delivery are known to have longer second stages of labor and more complicated deliveries, including more operative assisted births, more 3rd and 4th degree lacerations, PPH, and in some studies lower Apgar scores and lower umbilical cord arterial pH. At what point in labor should the healthcare provider attempt to rotate the fetal head: first stage or second stage of labor? Recent intrapartum studies using ultrasound to verify fetal head position has provided new insights regarding the cardinal phases of labor. In this episode, we will tackle the fetal occiput posterior position and manual rotation. Should this be a 1st or 2nd stage of labor practice?

Duration:00:47:03

“Formula” to Predict SD?

2/18/2024
The ACOG has long-held that shoulder dystocia is “unpreventable and unpredictable”. Nonetheless, as it is a devastating obstetrical occurrence, researchers have attempted to identify a reproducible mathematical formula using ultrasonographic, anthropometric factors to better predict it. What is the data behind these math models? Does the ACOG recognize their use? What is their positive predictive value? In this episode, we will examine the data – going back 40 years – and we will end the episode with the current stance from the ACOG regarding these mathematical calculations for shoulders dystocia prediction.

Duration:00:39:44

GDM “Screen” in 3rd Trimester?

2/15/2024
The ACOG has consistently recommended universal screening for gestational diabetes between 24 and 28 gestational weeks. Although controversial, the ACOG does endorse earlier screening for GDM in patients with additional risk factors. But what about patients who present for prenatal care after the 28th or 29th week? Should screening for GDM be done in the 3rd trimester? And if we do screen in the then, what is the reference range for “normal “or “abnormal”? Is it the same interpretation as when it is done between 24 and 28 weeks? Does 3rd trimester screening impact parental outcome? In this episode, we will examine the data and provide a recommendation of when testing for gestational diabetes in the 3rd trimester may have the most impact.

Duration:00:41:47

Phthalates and PTB: “New Data”

2/14/2024
On February 6, 2024, a new publication in the Lancet Planetary Health received national and international headlines. This study, funded through the NIH, revealed a striking association between certain chemicals in our environment and preterm birth. But is this data really new? We have known that certain chemical components, called phthalates, have a strong association with preterm birth for over 10 years now. Nonetheless, it is always a good reminder to reduce or avoid exposures to potentially dangerous substances which are ubiquitous in today’s culture. What exactly are phthalates? What did this new data reveal? In this episode, we will dive into the data and put things into proper perspective. PLUS, at the end of the episode, I’ll review 10 common-sense things that we can all do daily to try to reduce our exposure to these“forever chemicals”.

Duration:00:39:42

Another Nail in the Coffin for Late PT Steroids: New RCT Data

2/12/2024
YES, it’s true… Not even Super Bowl Sunday 🏈🏈can stop us from getting our podcast episode up and out! In this episode, we will summarize the key findings of a newly released RCT (ahead of print, Obstetrics and Gynecology) that is yet another “nail in the coffin” for late pre-term/early term steroids. This is perfect timing, as we just covered this topic on a separate episode last week. So listen in as we summarize this newly released, triple-blind RCT with eye-opening results.

Duration:00:21:10

New Data on Naltrexone in Pregnancy

2/8/2024
We are still in an opioid crisis. The number of women with opioid-related diagnoses at delivery has increased by 131% over the last several years (CDC, Data and Statistics, 2023). The ACOG has recommended the use of opioid agonist pharmacotherapy for MOUD during pregnancy. Traditionally, medically supervised withdrawal has not been endorsed for pregnancy. However, some patients may elect to discontinue opioid therapy in favor of an opioid antagonist like naltrexone. In this episode, we will review a new systematic review just released ahead-of-print in Obstetrics and Gynecology. This systematic review evaluates OB and neonatal outcomes following naltrexone use during pregnancy. And listen in until the END of the episode for one of the “issues” with naltrexone as a MOUD option.

Duration:00:27:55

TOKOPHOBIA: Pregnant & Petrified

2/7/2024
It is completely natural, and part of the human experience, to have some anticipatory concern about an upcoming delivery/childbirth. However, when that concern becomes overwhelming, it can develop into a debilitating phobia called Tokophobia. First coined as a term in 2000, there’s been growing awareness of this specific type of anxiety disorder/phobia. Even though it was first described in 2000, this extreme fear of pregnancy and childbirth has, of course, been part of the human experience For centuries. This is now considered a sub-type of PTSD when it happens after a traumatic childbirth experience. The idea for this episode originated from a real patient encounter that one of our residents had just yesterday. Have you heard of Toca phobia? How prevalent is it? And what are the “4 Rs” of trauma informed care? Will cover this, and more, in this episode.

Duration:00:51:57

The OB Steroid WARNING FLAGS: When CONS>PROS

2/5/2024
In 1972, Liggins and Howie published their landmark study on the benefits of antenatal corticosteroids (ACS) regarding their reduction of prematurity’s morbidity and mortality. This led to the weekly administration of ACS until 34 weeks. Weekly courses of steroids are no longer given, but the steroid story keeps evolving. In 2016, the ALPS trial demonstrated reduction in short-term respiratory morbidity when steroids were given in the late pre-term interval. Many professional societies and organizations endorsed this intervention shortly thereafter. But since then, there have been renewed commentaries and debates regarding steroids in the late pre-term interval, and steroid exposure in-utero for babies born late pre-term/term. several professional organizations, no longer endorse steroids in the late pre-term interval. In this episode, we will review this complicated and ever evolving debate, highlighting a recent systematic review and meta-analysis from August 2023.

Duration:00:50:10

Putting LNG-IUS EC In Perspective

2/3/2024
On January 28, 2021, a non-inferiority RCT was published in the NEJM, “Levonorgestrelvs Copper T Device for Emergency Contraception”. This study concluded that the LNG 52mg IUD was “noninferior” to the CopperT IUD for emergency BC up to 120 hours after ill-protected intercourse. Since that time, use of the LNG 52mg IUS has remained controversial with some organizations endorsing its use as EC while others take a more cautionary stance. Now, as a February 1, 2024, a new commentary in the Green Journal (Obstet Gynecol) is raising eyebrows regarding this. What’s the controversy surrounding this? Is the LNG 52 mg IUS a reasonable option for emergency contraception? What does non-inferiority mean? In this episode, we will go through all of the data and put things in proper perspective. While gaps in evidence remain… There is plenty to draw an evidence-based opinion on. Curious? Listen in and find out more.

Duration:00:50:47

The Incredible VIBRATING belt (Osteoboost device): Good Data?

2/1/2024
On January 18, 2024, the FDA cleared a novel new device for osteopenia treatment. This is a vibrating belt (wearable device) that transmits low-amplitude, high-frequency (20 to 40 Hz) vibration to the spine and hips. This belt is called Osteoboost. Osteoboost previously received a breakthrough designation from the FDA in Dec 2020. This FDA clearance has already generated a lot of commentaries regarding the single RCT results. In this episode, we will review the results critically and explain why there is a difference in “per protocol” RCT results and “intend to treat” RCT results. Is Osteoboost a game changer? Listen in and find out.

Duration:00:35:38

Place IUD/S if BV Present? What Would You Do?

1/30/2024
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal aberrant condition in women, in the general population. Even still, the majority of women with BV are asymptomatic. If BV is found at time of elective IUD/S placement, can the device still be inserted? Or is it an independent risk factor for upper tract infection? What category in the CDC MEC is vaginitis/vaginosis for IUD placement? There definitely is some confusion about this in clinical practice, highlighted by the 3 different clinicians which were interviewed in this episode! So…. IUD placement with BV: test and place, or test and differ placement? Listen and find out.

Duration:00:31:37

Place IUD/S if BV Present? What Would You Do?

1/30/2024
Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal aberrant condition in women, in the general population. Even still, the majority of women with BV are asymptomatic. If BV is found at time of elective IUD/S placement, can the device still be inserted? Or is it an independent risk factor for upper tract infection? What category in the CDC MEC is vaginitis/vaginosis for IUD placement? There definitely is some confusion about this in clinical practice, highlighted by the 3 different clinicians which were interviewed in this episode! So…. IUD placement with BV: test and place, or test and differ placement? Listen and find out.

Duration:00:30:30

More Bad News Re: PreEclampsia

1/27/2024
Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy (HDP) affect 5 to 15% of women worldwide, and their increasing incidence is likely related to the growing levels of obesity, metabolic syndrome and advancing maternal age. It is widely accepted that women who have preeclampsia are at increased risk of future hypertension, cardiovascular disease, stroke, chronic kidney disease, and even diabetes in later life. But what is the association between HDP and dementia? In this episode, we will review the latest data from a systematic review and meta-analysis published on January 24, 2024 in the AJOG.

Duration:00:32:29

OB Issues After IUD Perf?

1/25/2024
Uterine wall perforation at time of IUD placement has been published to occur, in general, about 1-2/1,000 cases. It happens! While there are some risk factors for uterine perforation (very antiflexed, retroflexed, recent postpartum state, lactating), sometimes uterine perforation can happen even with the best of technique and no risk factors. While most providers are concerned about immediate short-term gynecological complications like infection and bleeding, we don’t really consider the possibility of any potential future OB complications. Is a patient at higher risk of future adverse OB issues after perforation during IUD placement? It’s an interesting question, with an even more fascinating answer! In this episode we will dive into the data, and make sense of published case reports and clinical opinions which help us arrive at the answer to that question.

Duration:00:52:47

Extencilline, Linezolid, & STUFF

1/23/2024
Yep, Medicine moves fast! On Friday, January 5, 2024, I participated in a medical news report published in “The Guardian”. In that news commentary I stated that “Bicillin-LA is the only medication approved for syphilis during pregnancy”. We’ve all heard that statement, and it is a true statement. However, 5 days later on January 10, 2024, the FDA announced the importation allowance of “Extencillin” to combat the Bicillin-LA shortage. Yep, Medicine moves fast. Now we have this medication available as an option until Bicillin-LA increases its availability. But what about Linezolid? In this episode, we will also discuss a recent non-inferiority trial of Linezolid for early syphilis, which was published in “The Lancet”. Although that study had disappointing results, there are some caveats which need explaining. Listen in to find out more.

Duration:00:20:39

Extencilline, Linezolid, & STUFF

1/23/2024
Yep, Medicine moves fast! On Friday, January 5, 2024, I participated in a medical news report published in “The Guardian”. In that news commentary I stated that “Bicillin-LA is the only medication approved for syphilis during pregnancy”. We’ve all heard that statement, and it is a true statement. However, 5 days later on January 10, 2024, the FDA announced the importation allowance of “Extencillin” to combat the Bicillin-LA shortage. Yep, Medicine moves fast. Now we have this medication available as an option until Bicillin-LA increases its availability. But what about Linezolid? In this episode, we will also discuss a recent non-inferiority trial of Linezolid for early syphilis, which was published in “The Lancet”. Although that study had disappointing results, there are some caveats which need explaining. Listen in to find out more.

Duration:00:20:39

Preg Test in ESRD: Going Down the Rabbit Hole?

1/21/2024
If you had 5 reproductive age women, all late on their menstrual cycle, who were having unprotected sex, and all have a positive pregnancy test… What would be your diagnosis? The most likely diagnosis would be that there are five pregnancies! Right?! But what if 1 of those patients had end stage renal disease (ESRD), on hemodialysis. Is there anything else to consider? While ruling out pregnancy is priority #1, it is possible that this HCG is a phantom result. This is a slippery slope discussion and one that could easily lead down the rabbit hole. In this podcast, we will highlight this clinical conundrum, based on a real case from our practice, and summarize some fascinating reports from the literature.

Duration:00:48:57

You Asked, We Answered!

1/18/2024
Periodically, we respond to podcast family members’ questions as data is available. In this episode, we will cover 3 very clinically relevant questions from our podcast listeners. The first question is regarding our immediate past podcast topic, which was propranolol as a labor stimulant. The question is, “Does the ACOG have a statement on adjuvent propranolol use during labor?“. We’ll answer that question in this episode. The second question is whether the placebo/pill-free interval of combination birth control pills is linked to anxiety/depression. This is a COMPLICATED issue but there is brand new data that helps answer that exact question, and we will cover that in this episode. The final question is whether or not “HPV booster vaccination“ is indicated after CIN2+ treatment in patient who had previous vaccination. Lots of data to help answer these questions… and we will summarize it here.

Duration:00:46:30