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Epigenetics Podcast

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Discover the stories behind the science!

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Germany

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Discover the stories behind the science!

Language:

English


Episodes
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Using Single-Cell Multiomics to Characterize Human Developmental Hematopoiesis (Ana Cvejic)

5/16/2024
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Ana Cvejic from the Biotech Research & Innovation Centre at the University of Copenhagen about her work on using sc-multiomics to characterise human developmental hematopoiesis. The conversation starts by delving into Ana's research on hematopoiesis, starting with her work on identifying novel genes controlling blood traits in zebrafish models. She explains her transition to single-cell methodologies and the application of single-cell RNA sequencing to study hematopoietic cells in zebrafish, focusing on thrombocyte lineage commitment and gene expression. The discussion progresses to her groundbreaking study on human fetal hematopoiesis, where she combined single-cell RNA-seq with single-cell ATAC-seq to understand chromatin accessibility and gene expression dynamics. Ana then shares insights into the identification of new cell surface markers and the priming of hematopoietic stem cells, particularly in conditions like Down syndrome. Furthermore, she then elaborates on the construction of a phylogenetic tree of blood development using whole-genome sequencing of single-cell-derived hematopoietic colonies from healthy human fetuses. She explains the motivation behind this study, highlighting the insights gained regarding stem cell quantities, developmental timelines, and mutations in blood development. References Bielczyk-Maczyńska, E., Serbanovic-Canic, J., Ferreira, L., Soranzo, N., Stemple, D. L., Ouwehand, W. H., & Cvejic, A. (2014). A loss of function screen of identified genome-wide association study Loci reveals new genes controlling hematopoiesis. PLoS genetics, 10(7), e1004450. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1004450 Athanasiadis, E. I., Botthof, J. G., Andres, H., Ferreira, L., Lio, P., & Cvejic, A. (2017). Single-cell RNA-sequencing uncovers transcriptional states and fate decisions in haematopoiesis. Nature communications, 8(1), 2045. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-02305-6 Ranzoni, A. M., Tangherloni, A., Berest, I., Riva, S. G., Myers, B., Strzelecka, P. M., Xu, J., Panada, E., Mohorianu, I., Zaugg, J. B., & Cvejic, A. (2021). Integrative Single-Cell RNA-Seq and ATAC-Seq Analysis of Human Developmental Hematopoiesis. Cell stem cell, 28(3), 472–487.e7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.11.015 Related Episodes Single Cell Epigenomics in Neuronal Development (Tim Petros) ATAC-Seq, scATAC-Seq and Chromatin Dynamics in Single-Cells (Jason Buenrostro) Single-Cell Technologies using Microfluidics (Ben Hindson) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on X Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Epigenetics Podcast on Threads Active Motif on X Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:37:12

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The Impact of Sequence Variation on Transcription Factor Binding (Sven Heinz)

5/2/2024
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Sven Heinz from the University of California in San Diego about his work on the impact of sequence variation on transcription factor binding affinities and genetic diversity. Sven Heinz talks about a landmark study published in Nature that examined the impact of sequence variation on transcription factor binding affinities and downstream effects on gene expression. Modifying genetic sequences to understand the influence of different motifs provided valuable insights into how genetic variation shapes cellular responses and gene expression patterns, underscoring the importance of genetic diversity. Methodological approaches using inducible systems to observe changes in transcription factor binding patterns highlight the critical role of motif variation and redundancy in transcription factor families. These studies provide essential insights into the complex network of transcriptional regulation and chromatin dynamics, revealing the nuanced mechanisms that control gene expression and chromatin organization. In addition, he is investigating how small nucleotide changes can significantly affect transcription factor binding in macrophages from different mouse strains, shedding light on the intricate effects of genetic variation on transcription factor binding. Sven's career path from project scientist to assistant professor at UC San Diego and the Salk Institute reflects a journey marked by serendipitous opportunities and a collaborative, innovative research environment. The podcast delves into the effects of influenza virus infection on chromosomal territories, gene transcription, and chromatin structure, unraveling the sophisticated interplay between viral infection and host cell transcriptional regulation. References Heinz, S., Benner, C., Spann, N., Bertolino, E., Lin, Y. C., Laslo, P., Cheng, J. X., Murre, C., Singh, H., & Glass, C. K. (2010). Simple combinations of lineage-determining transcription factors prime cis-regulatory elements required for macrophage and B cell identities. Molecular cell, 38(4), 576–589. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2010.05.004 Heinz, S., Romanoski, C. E., Benner, C., Allison, K. A., Kaikkonen, M. U., Orozco, L. D., & Glass, C. K. (2013). Effect of natural genetic variation on enhancer selection and function. Nature, 503(7477), 487–492. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12615 Texari, L., Spann, N. J., Troutman, T. D., Sakai, M., Seidman, J. S., & Heinz, S. (2021). An optimized protocol for rapid, sensitive and robust on-bead ChIP-seq from primary cells. STAR protocols, 2(1), 100358. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2021.100358 Related Episodes Pioneer Transcription Factors and Their Influence on Chromatin Structure (Ken Zaret) Multiple Challenges in ChIP (Adam Blattler) The Role of Pioneer Factors Zelda and Grainyhead at the Maternal-to-Zygotic Transition (Melissa Harrison) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on X Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Epigenetics Podcast on Threads Active Motif on X Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:40:32

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Comparing CUT&Tag to ENCODE ChIP-Seq in Alzheimer's Disease Samples (Sarah Marzi)

4/18/2024
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Sarah Marzi from the UK Dementia Research Institute at Imperial College London about her work on epigenetic changes in Alzheimer's Disease, and comparing CUT&Tag to ENCODE ChIP-Seq using limited cell samples. The interview discusses Sarah Marzi's work on ChIP-Seq experiments and their significance in understanding Alzheimer's disease from an epigenetic perspective. The discussion touches on the widespread dysregulation and changes in acetylation, particularly in genes associated with Alzheimer's risk, providing insights into potential links between epigenetic insults and disease onset. Moving on to the technical aspects of the study, the interview examines the strategic use of CUT&Tag. It explores the challenges and optimizations involved in accurately profiling limited cell samples. The dialogue also compares CUT&Tag to ENCODE ChIP-Seq, highlighting the complexities of peak calling and data interpretation across different methodologies. References Kumsta, R., Marzi, S., Viana, J. et al. Severe psychosocial deprivation in early childhood is associated with increased DNA methylation across a region spanning the transcription start site of CYP2E1. Transl Psychiatry 6, e830 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2016.95 Marzi, S. J., Schilder, B. M., Nott, A., Frigerio, C. S., Willaime‐Morawek, S., Bucholc, M., Hanger, D. P., James, C., Lewis, P. A., Lourida, I., Noble, W., Rodriguez‐Algarra, F., Sharif, J., Tsalenchuk, M., Winchester, L. M., Yaman, Ü., Yao, Z., The Deep Dementia Phenotyping (DEMON) Network, Ranson, J. M., & Llewellyn, D. J. (2023). Artificial intelligence for neurodegenerative experimental models. Alzheimer’s & Dementia, 19(12), 5970–5987. https://doi.org/10.1002/alz.13479 Marzi, S. J., Leung, S. K., Ribarska, T., Hannon, E., Smith, A. R., Pishva, E., Poschmann, J., Moore, K., Troakes, C., Al-Sarraj, S., Beck, S., Newman, S., Lunnon, K., Schalkwyk, L. C., & Mill, J. (2018). A histone acetylome-wide association study of Alzheimer’s disease identifies disease-associated H3K27ac differences in the entorhinal cortex. Nature Neuroscience, 21(11), 1618–1627. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-018-0253-7 Hu, D., Abbasova, L., Schilder, B. M., Nott, A., Skene, N. G., & Marzi, S. J. (2022). CUT&Tag recovers up to half of ENCODE ChIP-seq peaks in modifications of H3K27 [Preprint]. Genomics. https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.03.30.486382 Related Episodes When is a Peak a Peak? (Claudio Cantù) Development of Integrative Machine Learning Tools for Neurodegenerative Diseases (Enrico Glaab) DNA Methylation Alterations in Neurodegenerative Diseases (Paula Desplats) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on X Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Epigenetics Podcast on Threads Active Motif on X Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:46:47

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The Role of Hat1p in Chromatin Assembly (Mark Parthun)

4/4/2024
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Mark Parthun from Ohio State University about his work on the role of Hat1p in chromatin assembly. Mark Parthun shares insights into his pivotal paper in 2004 that explored the link between type B histone acetyltransferases and chromatin assembly, setting the stage for his current research interests in epigenetics. He highlights the role of HAT1 in acetylating lysines on newly synthesized histones, its involvement in double-strand break repair, and the search for phenotypes associated with HAT1 mutations. The discussion expands to a collaborative research project between two scientists uncovering the roles of HAT1 and NASP as chaperones in chromatin assembly. Transitioning from yeast to mouse models, the team investigated the effects of HAT1 knockout on mouse phenotypes, particularly in lung development and craniofacial morphogenesis. They also explored the impact of histone acetylation on chromatin dynamics and its influence on lifespan, aging processes, and longevity. References Parthun, M. R., Widom, J., & Gottschling, D. E. (1996). The Major Cytoplasmic Histone Acetyltransferase in Yeast: Links to Chromatin Replication and Histone Metabolism. Cell, 87(1), 85–94. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81325-2 Kelly, T. J., Qin, S., Gottschling, D. E., & Parthun, M. R. (2000). Type B histone acetyltransferase Hat1p participates in telomeric silencing. Molecular and cellular biology, 20(19), 7051–7058. https://doi.org/10.1128/MCB.20.19.7051-7058.2000 Ai, X., & Parthun, M. R. (2004). The nuclear Hat1p/Hat2p complex: a molecular link between type B histone acetyltransferases and chromatin assembly. Molecular cell, 14(2), 195–205. https://doi.org/10.1016/s1097-2765(04)00184-4 Nagarajan, P., Ge, Z., Sirbu, B., Doughty, C., Agudelo Garcia, P. A., Schlederer, M., Annunziato, A. T., Cortez, D., Kenner, L., & Parthun, M. R. (2013). Histone acetyl transferase 1 is essential for mammalian development, genome stability, and the processing of newly synthesized histones H3 and H4. PLoS genetics, 9(6), e1003518. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1003518 Agudelo Garcia, P. A., Hoover, M. E., Zhang, P., Nagarajan, P., Freitas, M. A., & Parthun, M. R. (2017). Identification of multiple roles for histone acetyltransferase 1 in replication-coupled chromatin assembly. Nucleic Acids Research, 45(16), 9319–9335. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkx545 Popova, L. V., Nagarajan, P., Lovejoy, C. M., Sunkel, B. D., Gardner, M. L., Wang, M., Freitas, M. A., Stanton, B. Z., & Parthun, M. R. (2021). Epigenetic regulation of nuclear lamina-associated heterochromatin by HAT1 and the acetylation of newly synthesized histones. Nucleic Acids Research, 49(21), 12136–12151. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkab1044 Related Episodes Regulation of Chromatin Organization by Histone Chaperones (Geneviève Almouzni) Effects of Non-Enzymatic Covalent Histone Modifications on Chromatin (Yael David) scDamID, EpiDamID and Lamina Associated Domains (Jop Kind) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on X Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Epigenetics Podcast on Threads Active Motif on X Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:47:30

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The Impact of Paternal Diet on Offspring Metabolism (Upasna Sharma)

3/21/2024
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Upasna Sharma from UC Santa Cruz about her work on a number of interesting projects on H2A.Z and telomeres, the impact of paternal diet on offspring metabolism, and the role of small RNAs in sperm. In this interview Upasna Sharma discusses her work on the study of the paternal diet's impact on offspring metabolism. She reveals the discovery of small non-coding RNAs, particularly tRNA fragments, in mature mammalian sperm that may carry epigenetic information to the next generation. She explains the specific alterations in tRNA fragment levels in response to a low-protein diet and the connections found between tRNA fragments and metabolic status. Dr. Sharma further explains the degradation and stabilization of tRNA fragments in cells and the processes involved in their regulation. She shares their observation of tRNA fragment abundance in epididymal sperm, despite the sperm being transcriptionally silent at that time. This leads to a discussion on the role of the epididymis in the reprogramming of small RNA profiles and the transportation of tRNA fragments through extracellular vesicles. The conversation then shifts towards the potential mechanism of how environmental information could be transmitted to sperm and the observed changes in small RNAs in response to a low-protein diet. Dr. Sharma discusses the manipulation of small RNAs in embryos and mouse embryonic stem cells, revealing their role in regulating specific sets of genes during early development. However, the exact mechanisms that link these early changes to metabolic phenotypes are still being explored. References Sharma, U., Conine, C. C., Shea, J. M., Boskovic, A., Derr, A. G., Bing, X. Y., Belleannee, C., Kucukural, A., Serra, R. W., Sun, F., Song, L., Carone, B. R., Ricci, E. P., Li, X. Z., Fauquier, L., Moore, M. J., Sullivan, R., Mello, C. C., Garber, M., & Rando, O. J. (2016). Biogenesis and function of tRNA fragments during sperm maturation and fertilization in mammals. Science (New York, N.Y.), 351(6271), 391–396. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aad6780 Sharma, U., Sun, F., Conine, C. C., Reichholf, B., Kukreja, S., Herzog, V. A., Ameres, S. L., & Rando, O. J. (2018). Small RNAs Are Trafficked from the Epididymis to Developing Mammalian Sperm. Developmental cell, 46(4), 481–494.e6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2018.06.023 Rinaldi, V. D., Donnard, E., Gellatly, K., Rasmussen, M., Kucukural, A., Yukselen, O., Garber, M., Sharma, U., & Rando, O. J. (2020). An atlas of cell types in the mouse epididymis and vas deferens. eLife, 9, e55474. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.55474 Related Episodes The Epigenetics of Human Sperm Cells (Sarah Kimmins) Transgenerational Inheritance and Evolution of Epimutations (Peter Sarkies) The Role of Small RNAs in Transgenerational Inheritance in C. elegans (Oded Rechavi) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on X Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Epigenetics Podcast on Threads Active Motif on X Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:36:38

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H3K36me3, H4K16ac and Cryptic Transcription in Ageing (Weiwei Dang)

3/7/2024
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Weiwei Dang from Baylor College of Medicine about his work on molecular mechanisms of aging and the role of H3K36me3 and cryptic transcription in cellular aging. The team in the Weiwei Dang lab explored the connection between histone marks, specifically H4K16 acetylation and H3K36 methylation, and aging. Dr. Dang describes how the lab conducted experiments by mutating H4K16 to determine its effect on lifespan. They observed that the mutation to glutamine accelerated the aging process and shortened lifespan, providing causal evidence for the relationship between H4K16 and lifespan. They also discovered that mutations in acetyltransferase and demethylase enzymes had opposite effects on lifespan, further supporting a causal relationship. Weiwei Dang then discusses their expanded research on aging, conducting high-throughput screens to identify other histone residues and mutants in yeast that regulate aging. They found that most mutations at K36 shortened lifespan, and so they decided to follow up on a site that is known to be methylated and play a role in gene function. They discovered that H3K36 methylation helps suppress cryptic transcription, which is transcription that initiates from within the gene rather than at the promoter. Mutants lacking K36 methylation showed an aging phenotype. They also found evidence of cryptic transcription in various datasets related to aging and senescence, including C. elegans and mammalian cells. References Dang, W., Steffen, K., Perry, R. et al. Histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation regulates cellular lifespan. Nature 459, 802–807 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08085 Sen, P., Dang, W., Donahue, G., Dai, J., Dorsey, J., Cao, X., Liu, W., Cao, K., Perry, R., Lee, J. Y., Wasko, B. M., Carr, D. T., He, C., Robison, B., Wagner, J., Gregory, B. D., Kaeberlein, M., Kennedy, B. K., Boeke, J. D., & Berger, S. L. (2015). H3K36 methylation promotes longevity by enhancing transcriptional fidelity. Genes & development, 29(13), 1362–1376. https://doi.org/10.1101/gad.263707.115 Yu, R., Cao, X., Sun, L. et al. Inactivating histone deacetylase HDA promotes longevity by mobilizing trehalose metabolism. Nat Commun 12, 1981 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22257-2 McCauley, B.S., Sun, L., Yu, R. et al. Altered chromatin states drive cryptic transcription in aging mammalian stem cells. Nat Aging 1, 684–697 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s43587-021-00091-x Related Episodes Epigenetic Mechanisms of Aging and Longevity (Shelley Berger) Epigenetic Clocks and Biomarkers of Ageing (Morgan Levine) Gene Dosage Alterations in Evolution and Ageing (Claudia Keller Valsecchi) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on X Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Epigenetics Podcast on Threads Active Motif on X Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:56:15

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Split-Pool Recognition of Interactions by Tag Extension (SPRITE) (Mitch Guttman)

2/22/2024
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Mitch Guttman from California Institute of Technology about his work on characterising the 3D interactions of the genome using Split-Pool Recognition of Interactions by Tag Extension (SPRITE). Mitch Guttman discusses his exploration of the long non-coding RNA Xist, which plays a crucial role in X chromosome inactivation. He explains how they discovered that Xist is present everywhere in the nucleus, not just in specific locations on the X chromosome. Through their research, they identified critical proteins like SHARP that are involved in X chromosome silencing. The discussion then shifts to SPRITE, a method they developed to map multi-way contacts and generalize beyond DNA to include RNA and proteins. They compare SPRITE to classical proximity ligation methods like Hi-C and discuss how cluster sizes in SPRITE can estimate 3D distances between molecules. The conversation also touches upon the potential of applying SPRITE to single-cell experiments, allowing for the mapping of higher order nucleic acid interactions and tracking the connectivity of DNA fragments in individual cells. References Jesse M. Engreitz et al., The Xist lncRNA Exploits Three-Dimensional Genome Architecture to Spread Across the X Chromosome. Science 341,1237973(2013). DOI:10.1126/science.1237973 Chun-Kan Chen et al., Xist recruits the X chromosome to the nuclear lamina to enable chromosome-wide silencing. Science 354, 468-472(2016). DOI: 10.1126/science.aae0047 Quinodoz, S. A., Ollikainen, N., Tabak, B., Palla, A., Schmidt, J. M., Detmar, E., Lai, M. M., Shishkin, A. A., Bhat, P., Takei, Y., Trinh, V., Aznauryan, E., Russell, P., Cheng, C., Jovanovic, M., Chow, A., Cai, L., McDonel, P., Garber, M., & Guttman, M. (2018). Higher-Order Inter-chromosomal Hubs Shape 3D Genome Organization in the Nucleus. Cell, 174(3), 744-757.e24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2018.05.024 Goronzy, I. N., Quinodoz, S. A., Jachowicz, J. W., Ollikainen, N., Bhat, P., & Guttman, M. (2022). Simultaneous mapping of 3D structure and nascent RNAs argues against nuclear compartments that preclude transcription. Cell Reports, 41(9), 111730. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2022.111730 Perez, A. A., Goronzy, I. N., Blanco, M. R., Guo, J. K., & Guttman, M. (2023). ChIP-DIP: A multiplexed method for mapping hundreds of proteins to DNA uncovers diverse regulatory elements controlling gene expression [Preprint]. Genomics. https://doi.org/10.1101/2023.12.14.571730 Related Episodes Epigenetics and X-Inactivation (Edith Heard) Hi-C and Three-Dimensional Genome Sequencing (Erez Lieberman Aiden) Unraveling Mechanisms of Chromosome Formation (Job Dekker) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on X Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Epigenetics Podcast on Threads Active Motif on X Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:54:22

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MLL Proteins in Mixed-Lineage Leukemia (Yali Dou)

2/8/2024
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Yali Dou from Keck School of Medicine of USC about her work on MLL Proteins in Mixed-Lineage Leukemia. To start off this Interview Yali describes her early work on MLL1 and its function in transcription, particularly its involvement in histone modification. She explains her successful purification of the MLL complex and the discovery of MOF as one of the proteins involved. Next, the interview focuses on her work in reconstituting the MLL core complex and the insights gained from this process. She shares her experience of reconstituting the MLL complex and discusses her focus on the crosstalk of H3K4 and H3K79 methylation, regulated by H2BK34 ubiquitination. The podcast then delves into the therapeutic potential of MLL1, leading to the discovery of a small molecule inhibitor. Finally, we talk about the importance of the protein WDR5 in the assembly of MLL complexes and how targeting the WDR5-ML interaction can inhibit MLL activity. References Dou, Y., Milne, T., Ruthenburg, A. et al. Regulation of MLL1 H3K4 methyltransferase activity by its core components. Nat Struct Mol Biol 13, 713–719 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1038/nsmb1128 Wu, L., Zee, B. M., Wang, Y., Garcia, B. A., & Dou, Y. (2011). The RING Finger Protein MSL2 in the MOF Complex Is an E3 Ubiquitin Ligase for H2B K34 and Is Involved in Crosstalk with H3 K4 and K79 Methylation. Molecular Cell, 43(1), 132–144. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2011.05.015 Cao, F., Townsend, E. C., Karatas, H., Xu, J., Li, L., Lee, S., Liu, L., Chen, Y., Ouillette, P., Zhu, J., Hess, J. L., Atadja, P., Lei, M., Qin, Z. S., Malek, S., Wang, S., & Dou, Y. (2014). Targeting MLL1 H3K4 Methyltransferase Activity in Mixed-Lineage Leukemia. Molecular Cell, 53(2), 247–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2013.12.001 Park, S.H., Ayoub, A., Lee, YT. et al. Cryo-EM structure of the human MLL1 core complex bound to the nucleosome. Nat Commun 10, 5540 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-13550-2 Related Episodes Dosage Compensation in Drosophila (Asifa Akhtar) Targeting COMPASS to Cure Childhood Leukemia (Ali Shilatifard) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on X Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Epigenetics Podcast on Threads Active Motif on X Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:36:03

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Sex-biased Imprinting and DNA Regulatory Landscapes During Reprogramming (Sam Buckberry)

1/25/2024
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Sam Buckberry from the Telethon Kids Institute about his work on gene imprinting, sex-biased gene expression, DNA regulatory landscapes, and genomics in the indigenous population of Australia. Sam Buckberry's research career started with working on the imprinting of H19, IGF2, and IGF2R genes in the placenta. We talk about the controversy surrounding the imprinting of IGF2R and how his study used pyrosequencing to quantify gene expression. We also discuss Sam's work on sex-biased gene expression in the placenta and the identification of a cluster of genes related to placental development and pregnancy. In addition, we talk about Sam's research on reprogramming and the characterization of DNA regulatory landscapes during the process. We discuss the challenges of working with sequencing data, the discovery of epigenetic memories, and erasing them during reprogramming. Towards the end of the conversation, Sam mentions his current work in setting up an epigenetics group focused on indigenous genomics. They are conducting a large-scale, multi-omics study on cardiometabolic conditions in samples from indigenous Australian communities, with the goal of identifying biomarkers and better understanding the molecular basis of these conditions. References Buckberry, S., Liu, X., Poppe, D. et al. Transient naive reprogramming corrects hiPS cells functionally and epigenetically. Nature 620, 863–872 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-023-06424-7 Knaupp AS1, Buckberry S1, Pflueger J, Lim SM, Ford E, Larcombe MR, Rossello FJ, de Mendoza A, Alaei S, Firas J, Holmes ML, Nair SS, Clark SJ, Nefzger CM, Lister R and Polo JM (2017). Transient and permanent reconfiguration of chromatin and transcription factor occupancy drive reprogramming. Cell Stem Cell 21, 1-12 1 Co-first author Related Episodes The Effect of Mechanotransduction on Chromatin Structure and Transcription in Stem Cells (Sara Wickström) Differential Methylated Regions in Autism Spectrum Disorders (Janine La Salle) The Role of Pioneer Factors Zelda and Grainyhead at the Maternal-to-Zygotic Transition (Melissa Harrison) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on X Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Epigenetics Podcast on Threads Active Motif on X Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:38:30

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BET Proteins and Their Role in Chromosome Folding and Compartmentalization (Kyle Eagen)

1/11/2024
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Kyle Eagen from Baylor College of Medicine about his work on BET Proteins and their role in chromosome folding and compartmentalization. In the early days of his research career Dr. Eagen made use of genomics and microscopy to study chromosomes, particularly polytene chromosomes in Drosophila. The correlation between the folding patterns detected by Hi-C and polytene bands highlights the similarities between the two, bridging traditional cytology with modern NGS methods. This work formed the basis of Kyle's thesis and sparked his interest in nuclear organization and chromosome 3D structure. In his independent lab Kyle then studied compartments in chromatin structure and focused on the relationship between histone modifications and the 3D structure of chromosomes. The discovery of BRD4-NUT, a fusion oncoprotein that reprograms chromosome 3D structure, is highlighted as a significant step forward in understanding chromatin structure. The conversation then shifts to the use of a tool to test hypotheses about the involvement of BRD4 in a specific process, leading to consistent results and considerations for manipulating chromosome organization for therapeutic purposes. The role of BET proteins in genome folding and the need for further research on other factors involved in 3D genome structure are discussed. References Rosencrance, C. D., Ammouri, H. N., Yu, Q., Ge, T., Rendleman, E. J., Marshall, S. A., & Eagen, K. P. (2020). Chromatin Hyperacetylation Impacts Chromosome Folding by Forming a Nuclear Subcompartment. Molecular Cell, 78(1), 112-126.e12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2020.03.018 Huang, Y., Durall, R. T., Luong, N. M., Hertzler, H. J., Huang, J., Gokhale, P. C., Leeper, B. A., Persky, N. S., Root, D. E., Anekal, P. V., Montero Llopis, P. D. L. M., David, C. N., Kutok, J. L., Raimondi, A., Saluja, K., Luo, J., Zahnow, C. A., Adane, B., Stegmaier, K., … French, C. A. (2023). EZH2 Cooperates with BRD4-NUT to Drive NUT Carcinoma Growth by Silencing Key Tumor Suppressor Genes. Cancer Research, 83(23), 3956–3973. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-23-1475 Related Episodes Hi-C and Three-Dimensional Genome Sequencing (Erez Lieberman Aiden) Genome Organization Mediated by RNA Polymerase II (Argyrys Papantonis) Analysis of 3D Chromatin Structure Using Super-Resolution Imaging (Alistair Boettiger) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on X Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Epigenetics Podcast on Threads Active Motif on X Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:30:53

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Epigenetic Underpinnings of Human Addiction (Francesca Telese & Jessica Zhou)

12/21/2023
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Francesca Telese from UC San Diego and Jessica Zhou from Cold Spring Harbour about their work on the molecular underpinnings of human addiction. Francesca Telese worked on neuronal enhancers and their pivotal role in governing gene activity. She sheds light on her remarkable findings concerning the epigenetic signature of neuronal enhancers that are intricately involved in synaptic plasticity. Jessica Zhou joined Francesca Telese's lab as a PhD student where she worked on elucidating the effects of chronic cannabis use on memory and behavior in mice. She takes us through the fascinating correlation between THC and gene co-expression networks. Francesca and Jessicathen discuss the utilization of genetically diverse outbred rats in their research, along with the crucial exploration of cell type specificity in gene expression studies. They then delve into the long-term changes that occur in the brain after drug exposure and the profound implications for relapse. Additionally, they touch upon the challenges they face in analyzing single-cell data. References Zhou, J. L., de Guglielmo, G., Ho, A. J., Kallupi, M., Pokhrel, N., Li, H. R., Chitre, A. S., Munro, D., Mohammadi, P., Carrette, L. L. G., George, O., Palmer, A. A., McVicker, G., & Telese, F. (2023). Single-nucleus genomics in outbred rats with divergent cocaine addiction-like behaviors reveals changes in amygdala GABAergic inhibition. Nature neuroscience, https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-023-01452-y Wang, J., Telese, F., Tan, Y., Li, W., Jin, C., He, X., Basnet, H., Ma, Q., Merkurjev, D., Zhu, X., Liu, Z., Zhang, J., Ohgi, K., Taylor, H., White, R. R., Tazearslan, C., Suh, Y., Macfarlan, T. S., Pfaff, S. L., & Rosenfeld, M. G. (2015). LSD1n is an H4K20 demethylase regulating memory formation via transcriptional elongation control. Nature neuroscience, 18(9), 1256–1264. https://doi.org/10.1038/nn.4069 Related Episodes The Role of Histone Dopaminylation and Serotinylation in Neuronal Plasticity (Ian Maze) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on X Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Epigenetics Podcast on Threads Active Motif on Twitter Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:59:33

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H3K79 Methylation, DOT1L, and FOXG1 in Neural Development (Tanja Vogel)

11/30/2023
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Tanja Vogel from the University Clinics Freiburg about her work on epigenetic modifications in stem cells during central nervous system development. During our discussion, Dr. Vogel shared that she and her team have investigated H3K79 methylation and its functional significance, which remains a topic of debate in the scientific community. They’ve also investigated the role of DOT1L in neural development and its implications for neuronal networks, as disrupting DOT1L can lead to conditions such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. They explored the function of the SOX2 enhancer in the presence or absence of DOT1L enzymatic inhibition. The conversation then shifts to FoxG1, a vital player in forebrain development. The team uncovered its role in chromatin accessibility and its connection to microRNA processing. Their study, utilizing ChIP-Seq, reveals FoxG1's interactions with enhancer regions and other transcription factors, like NeuroD1. ### References Britanova, O., de Juan Romero, C., Cheung, A., Kwan, K. Y., Schwark, M., Gyorgy, A., Vogel, T., Akopov, S., Mitkovski, M., Agoston, D., Sestan, N., Molnár, Z., & Tarabykin, V. (2008). Satb2 is a postmitotic determinant for upper-layer neuron specification in the neocortex. Neuron, 57(3), 378–392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2007.12.028 Büttner, N., Johnsen, S. A., Kügler, S., & Vogel, T. (2010). Af9/Mllt3 interferes with Tbr1 expression through epigenetic modification of histone H3K79 during development of the cerebral cortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 107(15), 7042–7047. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0912041107 Franz, H., Villarreal, A., Heidrich, S., Videm, P., Kilpert, F., Mestres, I., Calegari, F., Backofen, R., Manke, T., & Vogel, T. (2019). DOT1L promotes progenitor proliferation and primes neuronal layer identity in the developing cerebral cortex. Nucleic acids research, 47(1), 168–183. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky953 Ferrari, F., Arrigoni, L., Franz, H., Izzo, A., Butenko, L., Trompouki, E., Vogel, T., & Manke, T. (2020). DOT1L-mediated murine neuronal differentiation associates with H3K79me2 accumulation and preserves SOX2-enhancer accessibility. Nature communications, 11(1), 5200. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19001-7 Akol, I., Izzo, A., Gather, F., Strack, S., Heidrich, S., Ó hAilín, D., Villarreal, A., Hacker, C., Rauleac, T., Bella, C., Fischer, A., Manke, T., & Vogel, T. (2023). Multimodal epigenetic changes and altered NEUROD1 chromatin binding in the mouse hippocampus underlie FOXG1 syndrome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(2), e2122467120. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2122467120 Related Episodes Molecular Mechanisms of Chromatin Modifying Enzymes (Karim-Jean Armache) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on Twitter Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Active Motif on Twitter Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:42:03

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Function of Insulators in 3D Genome Folding (Maria Gambetta)

11/16/2023
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Maria Gambetta from the University of Lausanne about her work on the function of insulators in 3D genome folding. Maria Gambetta focuses on investigating 3D contact dynamics between enhancers and promoters, providing insights into tissue-specific gene activation. The team used capture-C to analyze dynamic looping events, emphasizing the significance of accessible chromatin peaks in enhancer-promoter interactions. Furthermore, they focused on gene insulation and CTCF's role in forming topologically associating domains in Drosophila. Hi-C analysis on CTCF mutants revealed the conservation of TAD boundary mechanisms, identifying CP-190 as a potential binding protein. Their findings on the loss of TAD boundaries in mutants and the role of transcription in TAD boundary formation are discussed as well as the function of CP190 and insulators in preventing interactions between promoters and enhancers. Their work challenges existing models of insulator function and seeks to understand their mechanisms better. The conversation concludes with insights into long-range regulatory associations in Drosophila, emphasizing the punctual interactions between transcription factor binding sites and their effect on neural gene transcription and genome folding. References Gambetta, M. C., Oktaba, K., & Müller, J. (2009). Essential role of the glycosyltransferase sxc/Ogt in polycomb repression. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5936), 93–96. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1169727 Kaushal, A., Mohana, G., Dorier, J., Özdemir, I., Omer, A., Cousin, P., Semenova, A., Taschner, M., Dergai, O., Marzetta, F., Iseli, C., Eliaz, Y., Weisz, D., Shamim, M. S., Guex, N., Lieberman Aiden, E., & Gambetta, M. C. (2021). CTCF loss has limited effects on global genome architecture in Drosophila despite critical regulatory functions. Nature communications, 12(1), 1011. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21366-2 Hoencamp, C., Dudchenko, O., Elbatsh, A. M. O., Brahmachari, S., Raaijmakers, J. A., van Schaik, T., Sedeño Cacciatore, Á., Contessoto, V. G., van Heesbeen, R. G. H. P., van den Broek, B., Mhaskar, A. N., Teunissen, H., St Hilaire, B. G., Weisz, D., Omer, A. D., Pham, M., Colaric, Z., Yang, Z., Rao, S. S. P., Mitra, N., … Rowland, B. D. (2021). 3D genomics across the tree of life reveals condensin II as a determinant of architecture type. Science (New York, N.Y.), 372(6545), 984–989. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abe2218 Mohana, G., Dorier, J., Li, X., Mouginot, M., Smith, R. C., Malek, H., Leleu, M., Rodriguez, D., Khadka, J., Rosa, P., Cousin, P., Iseli, C., Restrepo, S., Guex, N., McCabe, B. D., Jankowski, A., Levine, M. S., & Gambetta, M. C. (2023). Chromosome-level organization of the regulatory genome in the Drosophila nervous system. Cell, 186(18), 3826–3844.e26. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2023.07.008 Related Episodes Hi-C and Three-Dimensional Genome Sequencing (Erez Lieberman Aiden) Biophysical Modeling of 3-D Genome Organization (Leonid Mirny) Long-Range Transcriptional Control by 3D Chromosome Structure (Luca Giorgetti) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on Twitter/X Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Active Motif on Twitter Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:43:35

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Contribution of the Estrogen Receptor to Breast Cancer Progression (Jason Carroll)

11/2/2023
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Jason Carroll from the Cambridge Research Institute about his work on contribution of estrogen receptor to breast cancer progression. The Podcast centers around the crucial role of the forkhead protein FOXA1 in breast cancer. FOXA1 acts as a pioneer transcription factor, facilitating gene regulation by recruiting nuclear receptors to chromatin, profoundly influencing gene expression in various breast cancer subtypes. The FOXA1-positive subtype of triple-negative breast cancer, despite being estrogen receptor-negative, shares gene expression profiles with estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer, shedding light on the importance of targeting the androgen receptor for treatment. The challenges of studying transcription factor mappings from clinical samples are explored, with a focus on the ChIP-seq method's success in mapping estrogen receptor binding sites. Various techniques for transcription factor mapping, including CUT&RUN, CUT&Tag, and ChIP-exo, are discussed, as well as the potential of mass spec techniques like the RIME method in analyzing protein interactions. An intriguing experiment involving the purification of multiple proteins to identify interactions is highlighted. References Carroll, J. S., Meyer, C. A., Song, J., Li, W., Geistlinger, T. R., Eeckhoute, J., Brodsky, A. S., Keeton, E. K., Fertuck, K. C., Hall, G. F., Wang, Q., Bekiranov, S., Sementchenko, V., Fox, E. A., Silver, P. A., Gingeras, T. R., Liu, X. S., & Brown, M. (2006). Genome-wide analysis of estrogen receptor binding sites. Nature genetics, 38(11), 1289–1297. https://doi.org/10.1038/ng1901 Hurtado, A., Holmes, K. A., Geistlinger, T. R., Hutcheson, I. R., Nicholson, R. I., Brown, M., Jiang, J., Howat, W. J., Ali, S., & Carroll, J. S. (2008). Regulation of ERBB2 by oestrogen receptor-PAX2 determines response to tamoxifen. Nature, 456(7222), 663–666. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature07483 Ross-Innes, C. S., Stark, R., Teschendorff, A. E., Holmes, K. A., Ali, H. R., Dunning, M. J., Brown, G. D., Gojis, O., Ellis, I. O., Green, A. R., Ali, S., Chin, S. F., Palmieri, C., Caldas, C., & Carroll, J. S. (2012). Differential oestrogen receptor binding is associated with clinical outcome in breast cancer. Nature, 481(7381), 389–393. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature10730 Mohammed, H., Russell, I. A., Stark, R., Rueda, O. M., Hickey, T. E., Tarulli, G. A., Serandour, A. A., Birrell, S. N., Bruna, A., Saadi, A., Menon, S., Hadfield, J., Pugh, M., Raj, G. V., Brown, G. D., D'Santos, C., Robinson, J. L., Silva, G., Launchbury, R., Perou, C. M., … Carroll, J. S. (2015). Progesterone receptor modulates ERα action in breast cancer. Nature, 523(7560), 313–317. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature14583 Related Episodes Pioneer Transcription Factors and Their Influence on Chromatin Structure (Ken Zaret) The Role of Pioneer Factors Zelda and Grainyhead at the Maternal-to-Zygotic Transition (Melissa Harrison) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on Twitter Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Epigenetics Podcast on Bluesky Active Motif on Twitter Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:46:37

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Inheritance of Transcriptional Memory by Mitotic Bookmarking (Sheila Teves)

10/19/2023
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we caught up with Sheila Teves from the University of British Columbia to talk about her work on the inheritance of transcriptional memory by mitotic bookmarking. Early in her research career, Sheila Teves focused on the impact of nucleosomes on torsional stress and gene regulation. She also highlights the development of a genome-wide approach to measure torsional stress and its relationship to nucleosome dynamics and RNA polymerase regulation. The conversation then shifts to her focus on transcriptional memory and mitotic bookmarking during her postdoc in the Tijan lab. She explores the concept of mitotic bookmarking, whereby certain transcription factors remain bound to their target sites during mitosis, facilitating efficient reactivation of transcription after cell division. She discusses her findings on the behavior of transcription factors on mitotic chromosomes, challenging the notion that they are excluded during mitosis. She also discusses the differences in binding behavior between the general transcription factor TBP and other transcription factors. Finally, the effect of formaldehyde fixation on the potential to find transcription factors bound to mitotic chromosomes is discussed. References Teves, S., Henikoff, S. Transcription-generated torsional stress destabilizes nucleosomes. Nat Struct Mol Biol 21, 88–94 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1038/nsmb.2723 Sheila S Teves, Luye An, Anders S Hansen, Liangqi Xie, Xavier Darzacq, Robert Tjian (2016) A dynamic mode of mitotic bookmarking by transcription factors eLife 5:e22280. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22280 Sheila S Teves, Luye An, Aarohi Bhargava-Shah, Liangqi Xie, Xavier Darzacq, Robert Tjian (2018) A stable mode of bookmarking by TBP recruits RNA polymerase II to mitotic chromosomes eLife 7:e35621. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.35621 Kwan, J. Z. J., Nguyen, T. F., Uzozie, A. C., Budzynski, M. A., Cui, J., Lee, J. M. C., Van Petegem, F., Lange, P. F., & Teves, S. S. (2023). RNA Polymerase II transcription independent of TBP in murine embryonic stem cells. eLife, 12, e83810. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.83810 Price, R. M., Budzyński, M. A., Shen, J., Mitchell, J. E., Kwan, J. Z. J., & Teves, S. S. (2023). Heat shock transcription factors demonstrate a distinct mode of interaction with mitotic chromosomes. Nucleic acids research, 51(10), 5040–5055. https://doi.org/10.1093/nar/gkad304 Related Episodes In Vivo Nucleosome Structure and Dynamics (Srinivas Ramachandran) From Nucleosome Structure to Function (Karolin Luger) Structural Analysis of Nucleosomes During Transcription (Lucas Farnung) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on Twitter Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Active Motif on Twitter Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:45:35

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Differential Methylated Regions in Autism Spectrum Disorders (Janine La Salle)

10/5/2023
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Janine La Salle from UC Davis about her work on differential methylated regions in autism spectrum disorders. In our discussion, Janine LaSalle highlights her work on the placental epigenetic signature, which offers insights into the impact of fetal exposures and gene-environment interactions during the perinatal period. She emphasizes the placenta's value as a surrogate tissue for understanding human diseases. Her research on DNA methylation in the placenta across different mammalian species reveals consistent patterns in partially methylated and highly methylated domains. She explains the critical role of higher methylation levels in specific regions for gene expression and how this knowledge helps trace the placenta's developmental history. The conversation then delves into Dr. LaSalle's research on the link between placental DNA methylation and autism. Through epigenome-wide association studies, she discovered a novel autism gene and explored the effects of prenatal exposures on DNA methylation profiles. Additionally, she discusses the impact of maternal obesity on offspring neurodevelopment. Ultimately, the goal of her research is to contribute to precision public health and preventative healthcare with epigenetic signatures offering high potential for predicting and preventing future health problems. References Schroeder, D. I., Blair, J. D., Lott, P., Yu, H. O., Hong, D., Crary, F., Ashwood, P., Walker, C., Korf, I., Robinson, W. P., & LaSalle, J. M. (2013). The human placenta methylome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(15), 6037–6042. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1215145110 Zhu, Y., Gomez, J. A., Laufer, B. I., Mordaunt, C. E., Mouat, J. S., Soto, D. C., Dennis, M. Y., Benke, K. S., Bakulski, K. M., Dou, J., Marathe, R., Jianu, J. M., Williams, L. A., Gutierrez Fugón, O. J., Walker, C. K., Ozonoff, S., Daniels, J., Grosvenor, L. P., Volk, H. E., Feinberg, J. I., … LaSalle, J. M. (2022). Placental methylome reveals a 22q13.33 brain regulatory gene locus associated with autism. Genome biology, 23(1), 46. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13059-022-02613-1 Laufer, B. I., Hasegawa, Y., Zhang, Z., Hogrefe, C. E., Del Rosso, L. A., Haapanen, L., Hwang, H., Bauman, M. D., Van de Water, J., Taha, A. Y., Slupsky, C. M., Golub, M. S., Capitanio, J. P., VandeVoort, C. A., Walker, C. K., & LaSalle, J. M. (2022). Multi-omic brain and behavioral correlates of cell-free fetal DNA methylation in macaque maternal obesity models. Nature communications, 13(1), 5538. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-022-33162-7 Coulson, R. L., Yasui, D. H., Dunaway, K. W., Laufer, B. I., Vogel Ciernia, A., Zhu, Y., Mordaunt, C. E., Totah, T. S., & LaSalle, J. M. (2018). Snord116-dependent diurnal rhythm of DNA methylation in mouse cortex. Nature communications, 9(1), 1616. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-03676-0 Neier, K., Grant, T. E., Palmer, R. L., Chappell, D., Hakam, S. M., Yasui, K. M., Rolston, M., Settles, M. L., Hunter, S. S., Madany, A., Ashwood, P., Durbin-Johnson, B., LaSalle, J. M., & Yasui, D. H. (2021). Sex disparate gut microbiome and metabolome perturbations precede disease progression in a mouse model of Rett syndrome. Communications biology, 4(1), 1408. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-021-02915-3 Related Episodes DNA Methylation Alterations in Neurodegenerative Diseases (Paula Desplats) Characterization of Epigenetic States in the Oligodendrocyte Lineage (Gonçalo Castelo-Branco) The Role of Histone Dopaminylation and Serotinylation in Neuronal Plasticity (Ian Maze) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on Twitter Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Active Motif on Twitter Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:40:39

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DNA Damage in Longevity and Ageing (Björn Schumacher)

9/21/2023
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we caught up with Björn Schumacher from the Institute for Genome Stability in Ageing and Disease at the University of Cologne to talk about his work on DNA damage in longevity and ageing. In this episode Björn Schumacher discusses his research on DNA repair and its impact on ageing. We explore his insights on the effects of DNA damage on transcription, the importance of studying development, and the role of histone modifications. We also discuss paternal DNA damage inheritance and the DREAM complex as a master regulator of DNA repair. The lab’s goal is to enhance somatic DNA repair for healthier ageing and disease prevention. References Schumacher, B., van der Pluijm, I., Moorhouse, M. J., Kosteas, T., Robinson, A. R., Suh, Y., Breit, T. M., van Steeg, H., Niedernhofer, L. J., van Ijcken, W., Bartke, A., Spindler, S. R., Hoeijmakers, J. H., van der Horst, G. T., & Garinis, G. A. (2008). Delayed and accelerated aging share common longevity assurance mechanisms. PLoS genetics, 4(8), e1000161. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1000161 Ermolaeva, M. A., Segref, A., Dakhovnik, A., Ou, H. L., Schneider, J. I., Utermöhlen, O., Hoppe, T., & Schumacher, B. (2013). DNA damage in germ cells induces an innate immune response that triggers systemic stress resistance. Nature, 501(7467), 416–420. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12452 Wang, S., Meyer, D. H., & Schumacher, B. (2023). Inheritance of paternal DNA damage by histone-mediated repair restriction. Nature, 613(7943), 365–374. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-05544-w Bujarrabal-Dueso, A., Sendtner, G., Meyer, D. H., Chatzinikolaou, G., Stratigi, K., Garinis, G. A., & Schumacher, B. (2023). The DREAM complex functions as conserved master regulator of somatic DNA-repair capacities. Nature structural & molecular biology, 30(4), 475–488. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41594-023-00942-8 Related Episodes Effects of Environmental Cues on the Epigenome and Longevity (Paul Shiels) Transposable Elements in Gene Regulation and Evolution (Marco Trizzino) Epigenetic Clocks and Biomarkers of Ageing (Morgan Levine) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on Twitter Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Active Motif on Twitter Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:49:20

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The Impact of Chromatin Modifiers on Disease Development and Progression (Capucine van Rechem)

9/7/2023
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Capucine van Rechem from Stanford University about her work on the impact of chromatin modifiers on disease development and progression. During her postdoctoral work, Capucine van Rechem studied the effects of Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in KDM4A on lung cancer cell lines and discovered a link between KDM4A and mTOR. She found that cells with the SNP had decreased KDM4A levels and increased sensitivity to inhibitors of the translation pathway. In addition, she found that a combination of histone marks was more predictive of replication timing than RNA expression alone, and identified the specific stages of the cell cycle where KDM4 primarily acts. Now in her own lab, the focus of her work shifted to SWI-SNF. The team has discovered the role of SWI-SNF in translation through polysome profiling and confirmed the interaction between SWI-SNF and translation. They are currently working to understand the functions of different complexes in translation and their connection to transcription. References Black, J. C., Manning, A. L., Van Rechem, C., Kim, J., Ladd, B., Cho, J., Pineda, C. M., Murphy, N., Daniels, D. L., Montagna, C., Lewis, P. W., Glass, K., Allis, C. D., Dyson, N. J., Getz, G., & Whetstine, J. R. (2013). KDM4A lysine demethylase induces site-specific copy gain and rereplication of regions amplified in tumors. Cell, 154(3), 541–555. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2013.06.051 Van Rechem, C., Ji, F., Mishra, S., Chakraborty, D., Murphy, S. E., Dillingham, M. E., Sadreyev, R. I., & Whetstine, J. R. (2020). The lysine demethylase KDM4A controls the cell-cycle expression of replicative canonical histone genes. Biochimica et biophysica acta. Gene regulatory mechanisms, 1863(10), 194624. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagrm.2020.194624 Van Rechem, C., Ji, F., Chakraborty, D., Black, J. C., Sadreyev, R. I., & Whetstine, J. R. (2021). Collective regulation of chromatin modifications predicts replication timing during cell cycle. Cell reports, 37(1), 109799. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109799 Ulicna, L., Kimmey, S. C., Weber, C. M., Allard, G. M., Wang, A., Bui, N. Q., Bendall, S. C., Crabtree, G. R., Bean, G. R., & Van Rechem, C. (2022). The Interaction of SWI/SNF with the Ribosome Regulates Translation and Confers Sensitivity to Translation Pathway Inhibitors in Cancers with Complex Perturbations. Cancer research, 82(16), 2829–2837. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-21-1360 Related Episodes Oncohistones as Drivers of Pediatric Brain Tumors (Nada Jabado) H3K4me3, SET Proteins, Isw1, and their Role in Transcription (Jane Mellor) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on Twitter Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Active Motif on Twitter Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:40:58

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Long-Range Transcriptional Control by 3D Chromosome Structure (Luca Giorgetti)

8/24/2023
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we caught up with Luca Giorgetti from the Friedrich Miescher Institute to hear about his work on long-range transcriptional control by 3D chromosome structure. Luca Giorgetti's research focuses on chromosomal interactions, transcriptional output, and the dynamics of enhancer-promoter relationships. His lab investigated the causal relationship between chromosome interactions and transcriptional events. They’ve found that by manipulating the contact probabilities between an enhancer and a promoter by changing their distance, these changes had a substantial effect on transcription levels. This project was an experiment that Luca Giorgetti was eager to do, and it allowed him to establish a smooth functional relationship between contact probabilities and changes in transcription levels. References Giorgetti, L., Galupa, R., Nora, E. P., Piolot, T., Lam, F., Dekker, J., Tiana, G., & Heard, E. (2014). Predictive polymer modeling reveals coupled fluctuations in chromosome conformation and transcription. Cell, 157(4), 950–963. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2014.03.025 Redolfi, J., Zhan, Y., Valdes-Quezada, C., Kryzhanovska, M., Guerreiro, I., Iesmantavicius, V., Pollex, T., Grand, R. S., Mulugeta, E., Kind, J., Tiana, G., Smallwood, S. A., de Laat, W., & Giorgetti, L. (2019). DamC reveals principles of chromatin folding in vivo without crosslinking and ligation. Nature structural & molecular biology, 26(6), 471–480. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41594-019-0231-0 Zuin, J., Roth, G., Zhan, Y., Cramard, J., Redolfi, J., Piskadlo, E., Mach, P., Kryzhanovska, M., Tihanyi, G., Kohler, H., Eder, M., Leemans, C., van Steensel, B., Meister, P., Smallwood, S., & Giorgetti, L. (2022). Nonlinear control of transcription through enhancer-promoter interactions. Nature, 604(7906), 571–577. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04570-y Mach, P., Kos, P. I., Zhan, Y., Cramard, J., Gaudin, S., Tünnermann, J., Marchi, E., Eglinger, J., Zuin, J., Kryzhanovska, M., Smallwood, S., Gelman, L., Roth, G., Nora, E. P., Tiana, G., & Giorgetti, L. (2022). Cohesin and CTCF control the dynamics of chromosome folding. Nature genetics, 54(12), 1907–1918. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41588-022-01232-7 Related Episodes scDamID, EpiDamID and Lamina Associated Domains (Jop Kind) Epigenetics and X-Inactivation (Edith Heard) Spatial Organization of the Human Genome (Wendy Bickmore) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on Twitter Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Active Motif on Twitter Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:40:12

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Transgenerational Inheritance and Epigenetic Imprinting in Plants (Mary Gehring)

8/10/2023
In this episode of the Epigenetics Podcast, we talked with Mary Gehring from MIT about her work on transgenerational inheritance and epigenetic imprinting in plants. Mary Gehring and her team are focusing on plant epigenetics and genetic imprinting in plants, studying DNA methylation in Arabidopsis. They have found significant differences in DNA methylation between the embryo and endosperm of plants, particularly in relation to imprinted genes. She also discusses their work on hydroxymethylcytosine (5-hmC) in Arabidopsis and the challenges of detecting and studying this epigenetic modification. Next, we discuss the regulatory circuit involving ROS1, a DNA glycosylase involved in demethylation, and its role in maintaining epigenetic homeostasis. The interview concludes with a discussion of CUT&RUN, which the lab has adapted for use in plants. Due to its low input requirements this method has been valuable in studying various plant tissues and has influenced Mary Gehring's research on imprinting in Arabidopsis endosperm. References Gehring, M., Bubb, K. L., & Henikoff, S. (2009). Extensive demethylation of repetitive elements during seed development underlies gene imprinting. Science (New York, N.Y.), 324(5933), 1447–1451. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1171609 Pignatta, D., Erdmann, R. M., Scheer, E., Picard, C. L., Bell, G. W., & Gehring, M. (2014). Natural epigenetic polymorphisms lead to intraspecific variation in Arabidopsis gene imprinting. eLife, 3, e03198. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03198 Klosinska, M., Picard, C. L., & Gehring, M. (2016). Conserved imprinting associated with unique epigenetic signatures in the Arabidopsis genus. Nature plants, 2, 16145. https://doi.org/10.1038/nplants.2016.145 Zheng, X. Y., & Gehring, M. (2019). Low-input chromatin profiling in Arabidopsis endosperm using CUT&RUN. Plant reproduction, 32(1), 63–75. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00497-018-00358-1 Related Episodes The Role of Small RNAs in Transgenerational Inheritance in C. elegans (Oded Rechavi) Epigenetic Influence on Memory Formation and Inheritance (Isabelle Mansuy) The Epigenetics of Human Sperm Cells (Sarah Kimmins) Contact Epigenetics Podcast on Twitter Epigenetics Podcast on Instagram Epigenetics Podcast on Mastodon Active Motif on Twitter Active Motif on LinkedIn Email: podcast@activemotif.com

Duration:00:28:51